World military spending rose 3.6% in 2019 to $ 1.92 trillion (1.77 trillion euros), the largest year-on-year increase since 2010, driven by the United States, according to a report released today by the International Institute of Stockholm Peace Studies (SIPRI).
This figure represents 2.2% of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and an average expenditure of $ 249 (230 euros) per person, consolidating the upward trend in world spending registered since 2015 after a fall between 2011 and 2014 by The financial crisis.
"World military spending was 7.2% higher than in 2010, confirming the trend that growth has accelerated in recent years. It is the highest level of spending since the 2008 crisis and probably represents a record high." , highlights the study.
With an investment of 732,000 million (676,000 million euros), 5.3% more than in 2018 and more than the combined spending of the next ten on the list, the United States accounted for 38% of the world total.
The increase is due to an increase in personnel costs due to the recruitment of 16,000 military personnel and to the modernization programs of conventional and nuclear arsenal and is based "on the perception of a return to the arms race among the great powers," the report states. .
US spending is however 15% lower than the 2010 record, which was followed by seven consecutive years of declines, a reversed trend in the past two.
CHINA HAS INCREASED MILITARY INVESTMENT CONTINUOUSLY SINCE 1994
With an expense of 261,000 million dollars (241,000 million euros), 5.1% more, China settled in second place, followed by India with 71,100 million (66,000 million euros), 6.8% more ; and Russia, with 65,100 million (60,121 million euros), almost 5% better.
Chinese investment represents an increase of 85% compared to 2010 and confirms a continuous increase in military spending since 1994, while Indian growth is mainly explained by tensions with its neighbors Pakistan and China, according to the report.
Saudi Arabia closes the "top 5" with an estimated expenditure of 61.9 billion (57.166 billion euros), 8% of its GDP and 16% less than in 2018, despite military operations in Yemen and tensions with Iran .
NATO MEMBERS INCREASE THEIR MILITARY SPENDING
After France, sixth, is Germany, with 49,300 million (45,530 million euros), 10% more, the highest rise in the top 15, which is partly explained by "the perception of a growing threat from Russia, shared by many other NATO members. "
In the top 15 list, six countries are members of NATO (USA, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy and Canada), with a joint expenditure of 929,000 million (858,000 million euros), 48% of the total world.
SIPRI highlights that several Central European countries members of the Atlantic Alliance notably increased their spending last year, such as Bulgaria (127% more) and Romania (17%).
The United Kingdom, Japan and South Korea, in this order, close the list of the top ten, while Brazil is eleventh, with 26,900 million (24,843 million euros) and a fall of 0.5%; and Spain remains seventeenth with 17,200 million (15,885 million euros), 0.9% more.
Colombia is ranked number 25, with a rise of 6.5%; Mexico continues at 32, with almost 8% more; and Chile falls to 36, with a slight rise of 0.3%.
EUROPE AND ASIA, THE REGIONS THAT MOST INCREASE SPENDING
In the analysis by regions, the greatest percentage increase was recorded in Europe (5%), followed by Asia and Oceania (4.8%), America (4.7%) and Africa (0.5%), while in Middle East SIPRI highlights that, for the fifth consecutive year, it cannot provide an estimate of total spending.
In the American continent, the sum of the joint investment of the United States and Canada accounted for 92% of the total in the region.
Brazil (51%), Colombia (19%) and Chile (9.8%) were the main investors in South America, while Mexico monopolized three quarters of spending in Central America and the Caribbean.