Are there women’s professions? Are there sectors in which they have no options? We dive into the latest data from the INE (National Institute of Statistics) and the SEPE (State Public Employment Service) to confirm that nine out of ten teachers, child carers, teachers and domestic workers are women. The motives? In the case of the teachers, they would have to go look for them at the doors of the universities. “I studied children’s teaching and in class there was only one boy,” confirms Helena Manjón. She works in a concerted center in Madrid and currently, within her cycle, all her classmates are effectively women.
With the data from the INE in hand, it is clear that in the top 10 feminized professions are domestic workers (501 thousand women for 78 thousand men), teachers (926 thousand women for 448 thousand men) or all those that cover the health and social services sector (1,337 thousand women for 409 thousand men) followed by saleswomen, seamstresses, receptionists, waitresses, accountants and administrative or veterinary, a profession in which the number of active women doubles that of men.
At the other end of the table, the construction sector stands out in capital letters, in which the Active Population Survey counts 1,176 thousand men for 107 thousand women and that of agriculture, in which the number of men quadruples that of women . Being the first in which the differences are more bleeding, for every ten masons or plumbers there are less than one woman, there are hardly any civil engineers (14 thousand women for 95 thousand men), air conditioning installers, mechanics, taxi drivers, transporters professionals, garbage dumps, informatics or executives, understanding this last position as the director general or executive president.
To understand why there are hardly any presidents or directors in Spain, it is enough to have a talk with Maite Egoscozabal, sociologist and head of Social Research of the Malasmadres Club, “according to our study ‘We are Team’, 6 out of 10 women renounce their career as mothers because they cannot combine their career in the labor market with the care of their sons and daughters, reducing the workday, taking leave or temporarily leaving the labor market means, in most cases, a brake on the professional career “. And, according to Egoscozabal: “The inequality in assuming responsibilities, the barriers we face and the gender stereotypes that are created around motherhood means that women who are in positions are not precisely women management, or that the most feminized jobs are less valued. “
Where yes parity exists
What about the professions in which the number of women and men is practically the same? According to the figures handled by the INE, parity exists in sectors such as the textile and footwear industry, pharmacy, wholesale, hospitality, film, financial and insurance, real estate, consulting, research and development, advertising or administrative activities among others.
What the future holds for us
We already know which professions are feminized and in which women are far from being present, but what is to be expected for the coming years? Does the tendency to feminize or masculinize certain professions seem to reverse? According to the 2019 Women’s Labor Market Report, which collects state data and that has been prepared by the SEPE, the percentage of female hiring is increasing in some professions as directors of education services (+ 25.18%); managers of health centers (+ 17.90%), professionals in support of work and social education (21.66%) or operators of laundry and dry cleaning machines; maintaining the contracts for waitresses and cleaning staff as the most signed by women throughout the period studied. This report only confirms the feminization of these sectors “the trend that has been registered since 2011 is maintained, so that female hiring once again exceeds the male in three of the nine large groups”, in which the professions that have to do with education and care. And it goes even further: “three quarters of the contracts accounted for were concentrated in only two large groups; 5 of the catering, personal, protection and sales service workers, and 9, which encompasses elementary occupations.”
It is thus clear that the differences in conditions and characteristics in both the supply and the demand for employment of women and men exist and are considerable.