The progressive incorporation of women into the workplace has not mitigated the differences with men. The workers charged in 2016, according to INE data, 5,793 euros less on average than workers. This is reflected in two reports presented on Tuesday by the unions CC OO Y UGT to indicate the inequality of the labor market, just two weeks before the celebration of International Women's Day on March 8. Both documents point to professional segregation as the main cause of the wage gap, since they work in the lower job categories while they fill the management positions. In addition, the employees occupy three of every four part-time days.
The data indicate that women workers earned 20,131 euros on average in 2016 while men earned an average of 15,924 euros, so the wage gap stood at 22.35% and fell slightly compared to 2015, when it was 22.86 %. "Despite the reduction, these figures are still unacceptable," said the deputy secretary general of UGT, Cristina Antoñanzas, during the presentation on Tuesday of the report Reduce the wage gap, the priority.
For CC OO, women suffer double discrimination in the labor market, which implies a lower average hourly wage and a greater presence in partial hiring. The union relects in its report Breaking the wage gap, a matter of justice that women earned an average of 13.6 euros per hour in 2016, while men received 15.94 euros per hour, so their salary should grow by 17% to reach equalization. The study also shows that 74.6% of people hired part-time were women, compared to 25.4% of men. "Women are concentrated in sectors and occupations that, in general, are worse paid and valued", explains the study
Unai Sordo, general secretary of the union, explained that the wage gap is "multi-causal" and is reflected in education, difficulties in accessing employment, in occupational segregation in sectors of activity, in "non-existent" real family co-responsibility and in the lack of representation of women in the management bodies of companies.
The confederal secretary of Women and Equality of CC OO, Elena Blasco, has criticized that there is still the false idea that a woman's salary still works as a complement to the family economic unit. The UGT report also mentions this circumstance as one of the causes of the wage gap. In this sense, the UGT study makes reference to the fact that 18% of women who work part-time contracts do so to take care of a family member compared to 3% of men.
CC OO shows in its study that women find greater difficulties in reconciling work and personal life, since of the total number of leave granted in 2017 for care of both children and family members, more than 80% were requested by mothers. The union has also denounced during the presentation that there is a lack of transparency regarding employee compensation, which makes it difficult to identify and prevent the salary gap. The organization has indicated that salary supplements account for 44% of the wage gap between men and women. Antoñanzas, deputy secretary of UGT, explained that the Labor Inspectorate does not have the means to tackle the wage gap. He also pointed out that the inspectors also do not have the adequate training to deal with this problem.
The UGT report reveals the salary gap by Autonomous Communities. The biggest differences take place in Asturias (29.3%), Navarre (28.02%) and Cantabria (27.7%). The regions with the smallest differences are the Canary Islands (13.89%), the Balearic Islands (15.39%) and Extremadura (19.46%). Age is another variable that UGT has plamado in his study. The women most affected are those who continue to work above the legal age, who get to charge 50.36% less than men. Among the youngest (from 25 to 29 years old), the salary gap is 12.5%.