The Nobel Prize for Literature Mario Vargas Llosa has assured today that the Mexican president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, he had to write himself the letter instead of asking the king of Spain to apologize for the abuses committed in the conquest, because there are still thousands of Indians exploited in their country.
The Peruvian writer did not bite his tongue during his speech at the inaugural ceremony of the VIII Congress of the Spanish Language and that it has been presided over by King Felipe VI and Argentine President Mauricio Macri.
Vargas Llosa made reference to the letter that López Obrador sent to the King of Spain and to Pope Francisco, asking for an apology for the abuses committed by the Spaniards during the conquest.
"I have the impression," he said, "that he was the wrong recipient, the letter had to be sent to himself and to answer the question of why Mexico, which joined the Western world five centuries ago thanks to Spain, still has so many thousands of marginalized Indians, poor, ignorant, exploited. "
"It is a question that can be asked to almost all Latin American presidents", said the writer, who added: "the problem is not there, in the past, that problem is not the Spanish today, those who stayed in Spain."
According to Vargas Llosa, almost none of the Latin American countries has solved the "proverbial injustice" of the Indians in America, not even those with a large aboriginal population or the Amazonian populations where they still live "in the Stone Age".
"But the problem is not there, in the past of 500 years ago, it is alive, today, and it hits our conscience to Latin Americans" because of the inability to solve it, he stressed.
The problem "is not that of today's Spaniards, those who stayed in Spain, it affects mainly the Spaniards who came and stayed here, the grandparents, great grandparents and great-grandparents of López Obrador and mine and those of millions of Latin Americans who We are proud to have Spanish ancestry, "insisted Vargas Llosa.
The Mexican president "He does not seem informed that the great massacres of Indians were not only in the colonial years, some countries such as Argentina, Chile or Peru itself they committed horrible massacres of Indians during the Republic and that they have continued committing in the Amazon during the rubber era, "he said.
"I hope," he said, "that when his term in office, López Obrador, the Mexican Indians have better living conditions, they have obtained more opportunities, more education, in such a way that the slab that has discriminated against them over so many centuries has been lifted." .
Lhistorians, linguists, sociologists can not agree on how many languages existed in America at the arrival of the Spanish and Portuguese, and they place them between 1,500 and 3,000, Vargas Llosa recalled, saying that the Americans "did not understand each other and then fell in. It was a tower of Babel when the Europeans arrived and bathed in blood."
But the controversies generated by the conquest disappear when it comes to the language: "nobody, I think, discusses the importance that meant for America to unite in a single will of expression, in one language the extraordinary diversity that characterized this continent" , said the writer and academic.
The Spanish language is not only an instrument of communication, "They are also certain values, knowledge, because with Spanish culture and language many other things arrived on our coasts".
In this regard, he indicated: "Greece, Aristotle and Plato and Rome arrived with their jurists, the Renaissance and values that are the best of this western culture of which Spanish is an integral and protagonist: freedom, human rights, and a moral conscience that judges our actions ".