The speech therapist San Juan de Dios Hospital from Tenerife Miryam Mederos indicates the need to go to the consultation of a speech therapist if after 4 years of age a child has not naturally overcome certain articulatory problems in speech when reproducing certain phonemes.
The dislalia It is a pathology that manifests with difficulties in the speech articulation by omission, substitution or distortion of certain sounds or phonemes and is one of the most frequent reasons why parents go to the consultation of a speech therapist with their children, because it can appear both in spontaneous, induced or repetitive language, this is, "no matter how much the father tries to repeat a particular phoneme, he will get the child to reproduce it correctly," explains Mederos.
There are different types of dyslalias. The evolutionary one constitutes those problems in the joint that appear in an evolutionary state of the normal child, that is to say, that still, due to its age, it has not reached the total control of its sounding organ. This type of dyslalia, also known as physiological, is proper in children up to 4 years old, who in their attempts to reproduce the sound have not reached that adequate level of articulation. If the difficulty in speech persists because the child does not place the articulatory organs well to pronounce a particular phoneme or because the reproduction attempts do not improve, it would be a functional dyslalia.
In these two types of dyslalias, the best known appear with seseo or with difficulties in pronouncing the letter ele or the letter erre. The latter "happens when the child means 'mouse', but says 'daton'. This dyslalia happens because the articulatory organs are not being placed correctly. But it can happen that by distortion, pronounce 'trigger'. There are many variants but in all the cases are necessary to consult a speech therapist, "concludes the speech therapist at the San Juan de Dios Hospital, which clarifies that among the causes that can lead to such difficulties can be found a poor motor skill, perception problems, problems of understanding and auditory discrimination and even environmental, psychological or intellectual disability factors.
From the age of 4, if the parents detect that the child does not articulate a phoneme correctly, it is time to go to a speech therapist's office to be valued. Miryam Mederos points out that "in some cases, we can offer guidelines to the child and his family so that, in a natural way and with exercises at home, the joint difficulty is solved., But in other cases rehabilitation is necessary."
In addition, the speech therapist of San Juan de Dios reveals that there is a high rate of children with dyslalia who, when they go to primary school, when they make contact with the learning of reading and writing, begin to have more difficulties than other children At the time of writing certain letters, which are the ones that have difficulties, since that is when the child needs to segment the words into syllables, convert the phonemes into graphic signs according to the spelling rules of their language. "If a child says 'dojo' instead of 'red', it will be very normal for him to write 'dojo' even when he is listening to this word correctly in his teacher's dictation," explains Mederos. Therefore, if at 6 or 7 years the dyslalia persists it is essential that a professional correct it, because in this way the reading comprehension and attention of the child will be encouraged.
In addition to the evolutionary and functional dyslalia, there is audiogenic dyslalia, which come from problems associated with hearing; or organic dyslalias, which occur as a result of an organic problem. Among the latter are distinguished between dysarthria, which occur from a neurological lesion such as paralysis or stroke; and dysglossias, which are associated with malformations in the articulatory organs such as cleft lip or veil-palatal fissure.