Once the extraordinary call for selectivity in the last autonomous communities (Galicia and Andalusia held it this week), the last students face the dilemma of choosing which career they want to study. Business Administration and Management (ADE) is, for yet another year, the degree with the most professional opportunities in Spain, with 10.6% of job offers requiring university studies (1.6 points more than in 2018), followed of Industrial Engineering (4.6%) and Computer Science (3.8%), according to the results of the report Infoempleo Adecco 2019. Offer and Demand for Employment in Spain. The top five are completed by ADE and Law (3.6%) and Labor Sciences, Labor Relations and Human Resources (3.3%).
The coronavirus pandemic has only accentuated the transformation of the labor market, which demands more insistently than ever flexible professionals capable of developing their careers in a scenario as changing as the current one. Workers who can be university or vocational training graduates, since, between both training levels, they accumulate four out of every five job offers in Spain. In 2019, 38.8% of them included among their requirements a VET degree (either medium or higher), while those that demanded a university degree, including masters and other postgraduate studies, accounted for 42.3 %. An offer that, on the other hand, is mainly concentrated in three areas: the Community of Madrid (25.1%, two points less than the previous year), Catalonia (16.6%, 2.8% less) and the Basque Country (14.8%, two and a half points more than in 2018), while nine communities (Cantabria, Navarra, Asturias, Murcia, Extremadura, La Rioja, Baleares, Melilla and Ceuta) did not reach 2%.
Now, is employability the only factor to take into account when choosing higher education? Where is the vocation? “I believe that both must be compensated, although for me the latter is more important. You have to think that in the future they will spend a lot of time in their work, that it will be part of their life and their personal development (not just work), and that therefore they have to think of something that they like and motivate them ”, Says Concepción García, vice-rector for Entrepreneurship and Employability at the Complutense University of Madrid.
García takes advantage of the aforementioned changing nature of the market to clarify that young people should take some weight off their decision, since “jobs are changing. Permanent training after their degree will be essential for them and will allow them to turn their professional career in the future ”. For this reason, he insists on the importance of choosing studies “that encourage them to be good, to study and to acquire complementary skills, without forgetting to fully live their university experience. And they can also be training in other things while they finish their degree ”.
Among the postgraduate studies most in demand are, traditionally, MBAs, which also present a high degree of employability: nine out of 10 graduates have a guaranteed job after completing these studies, and more than 72% do so in a field related to the Master’s content, according to Ranking of Online Higher Education Institutions (FSO) of Habla Hispana 2019 prepared by the Hamilton Global Intelligence consultancy. But specializations in fields such as digital transformation, marketing and human resources are also in demand. A type of training that, in addition, can be much cheaper if it is taken in its online format, as suggested by this ranking of discounted training that it recommends the Emagister course finder:
Other highly demanded degrees
The five university majors mentioned at the beginning (ADE, Industrial Engineering, Computer Science, ADE and Law and Labor Sciences, Labor Relations and HR), are followed by another group of degrees with a high degree of employability, in which we find Commerce and Marketing (2.7% of job offers), Nursing (2.5%), Economics (2.1%), Mechanical Engineering (2%), Law (1.8%), Industrial Electronic Engineering and Automation ( 1.8%) and Medicine and Biomedicine (1.6%). By areas of knowledge, the branch of Social and Legal Sciences accounts for 42.4% of the job offer, followed by Engineering and Architecture (36.2%) and Health Sciences (15.1%), while Sciences (3.4%) and Arts and Humanities (2.8%) are the least attractive.
But what factors influence the attractiveness of a degree for companies? This degree of employability depends on several aspects that occur simultaneously, such as the balance between supply and demand or the degree of experience accumulated by the candidate, but also “on the closest business and industrial fabric. In the end, a high percentage of students will end up working in the private sector, so it will have to do with the structure of the business sector and, fundamentally, with the relationship between industrial and service companies ”, explains García, who acknowledges that, not However, many times that does not correspond to the offer of studies at universities: “There is a certain imbalance between degrees with a large number of places available and which later have a difficult employability, because perhaps they correspond to sectors that are not growing so fast. “
For the vice-rector of the Complutense, the pandemic has greatly changed expectations, and although sectors that had already had a great future, such as technology, the Big Data, computer science or physics will continue to have it, now it has been seen that other not-so-technological profiles are also needed, such as health and education. In turn, it highlights “the development of new skills for teachers and teachers, because the education sector itself is transforming very rapidly. The need for professionals with other different skills and competencies has become evident ”.
Talking about the health sector is impossible without stopping to reflect on the deep shortages of human resources that have been evident in the daily fight against the pandemic, with health centers and hospitals clearly overrun and underfunded. However, García is optimistic: “I think we are going to see a strong change in trend. It is true that there have been cuts in healthcare in recent years [la oferta de empleo en el área de la salud bajó 2,1 puntos de 2018 a 2019, según el informe de Adecco], but I believe that society is going to promote it and make that offer of jobs grow, because the vulnerability of the health system has been seen ”. Opportunities that, in his opinion, will translate into growth on both the public and private sides: “There is a lack of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, social workers … and, of course, positions related to computing and Big data applied to medicine ”.