The wage gap it increases in occupations where men are a clear majority. In these cases, women charge 14.7% less than average per hour worked. On the other hand, it goes down a lot, when there is parity. It remains at 8.4%, that is, decreases, but the gap does not close, it is still there, according to a study by the BBVA Foundation and the Valencian Institute of Economic Research (IVIE). Between both cases, the feminized occupations are located. In these situations, women receive remunerations 11.1% lower.
By measuring the wage gap per hour, the difference between the remunerations segregated by sex is reduced. The gross figure of the annual salary shows that women charge 22.3% less, according to the data of the salary structure survey of 2014, the latest available and those that are the basis of this investigation.
This gross difference of more than 22% in annual salary income is explained by several reasons that do not have to mean legal discrimination –Pay less per hour to a woman than to a man for the same job is illegal– or at least it is not very obvious. There are factors that influence the number of hours worked: many more women than men have part-time jobs.
Another factor is precisely that of the professions and masculinized occupations, since there are cases in which the collective agreements themselves generate situations that involve de facto discriminations. A common example is that of several provincial cleaning agreements in which the categories of cleaner (work carried out mainly by women) have lower pay than those of window cleaners or drivers.
When it comes to defining what a masculized profession is, the researchers in this study take those in which men represent 65% of the collective. In this definition fit, executive directors, professionals of new technologies, mechanics, painters, masons and workers, technicians and engineering supervisors, drivers, electricians …
The situation is reversed when talking about a feminized work, among those who are health workers, teachers and professors, administrative staff, receptionists, clerks, carers. The parity, no sex supposes more of 60% nor less than 40%, is reached in libraries, specialist in organization in the public and private sector, professionals of the culture or accountants and employees of finances.
"In order to reduce or even eradicate wage differences between the sexes, it would be advisable, among other measures, to reduce as much as possible the segregation of gender in occupations in the economy," the study analyzes. The first one that asks to eradicate it is "design educational policies in all stages so that they promote gender equality, and guide people towards their professional career and future occupation based on their abilities and not because of the gender with which they identify themselves. in society".
The results reached by researchers from the IVIE and the BBVA Foundation are another indication of the direction in which men and women do not receive the same remuneration for work of equal value, one of the demands of the feminist movement. Refining the data to the point of achieving an incontestable result on this is almost impossible with the existing information. However, there are other investigations that also point in that direction. One of the most recent was directed by the Economics professor José Ignacio Conde-Ruiz, which showed that women charge 12.7% less per hour in "similar tasks".