The Faculty of Education Sciences of the ULPGC hosts the 'III Meeting of solidarity dialogues among young people: citizen and fraternity'. Yesterday there were several presentations, among which was Carlos Roldn, coordinator of the Educational and Assistance Foundation Cives, who spoke on 'Hate speeches'. The Faculty of Education Sciences of the ULPGC hosts the' III Meeting of solidarity dialogues among young people: citizen and fraternity '. Yesterday there were several presentations, among which was Carlos Roldn, coordinator of the Educational and Assistance Foundation Cives, who spoke about 'Hate speeches'.
In his lecture yesterday at the Faculty of Education Sciences of the ULPGC You made reference to the fact that we are all macho, homophobic and racist. How can everyone have such conditions and how can they be avoided?
We all belong to a specific context, we were born in a place, grown up in a family and gone to a certain school that have taught us a series of elements that we have in common, where there is a vision of the woman or the people who come from another place. This is called the primary and secondary socialization process. None of us escaped it. If, for example, the worldview we have is macho, we are macho because we have sucked it. If in our house there is a negative vision regarding migrants, we will have the same.
How can we avoid behaving like this?
Being aware of this, reflecting is when we can dismantle the prejudices and stereotypes we have. For example, at one point, I saw that a woman was flying a plane and I thought how I was going to do it because it is something that I have been taught. So I had to reflect: And why won't he do it? I saw that you first have to change your prejudices and think about what they are based on, whether what you think is real or not, and then help others to change as well.
Since when do hate speech exist on which your talk focused? How do they manifest today?
They have always existed, they are inherent to the human being. People have to call things in a certain way, categorize them, something that is included in social psychology. Hate speech involves the attack on people who belong to other groups. Currently the way of diffusion has changed. Before they were restricted to the private sphere. Then the media appeared and helped spread the hate speech, but now we also have Internet, social networks and what we express in public.
And within all this you speak of the human attitude …
Yes, all attitudes have three components: cognitive, behavioral and affective. The cognitive includes what we think, which then reproduces as a stereotype towards a group. For example, women are of such characteristics, the canaries, of others, the locals of many others … We have learned that from our family, our peer group and our context. As for the affective part, for example, I know that Catalans are one way or another, but what feeling do they generate? Now with the process is a very palpable issue in people that immediately comes to light, that is, people get angry. This leads to prejudice. For example, Catalans are stingy and also bad. Third, the attitude has the behavioral part, that is, how I behave towards what I think and feel. Normally in hate speech this is linked to discrimination.
How does the iceberg of hate work?
It is a scale. A series of negative ideas are penetrating the person until there is a point where if they kept moving forward they could end up in a genocide. For example, what happened to the Holocaust in Germany of the Jewish people. At first it began with the stereotypes of the Jews, a cognitive element of the human attitude. Then they were linked to a prejudice: the Jews are in such a way and they also generate this feeling for me. This then led to discrimination that was not first seen until demonstrations began in the street and to point to a Jewish house, for example. Then the physical and verbal aggressions began and all this ended in genocide.
Add me another example.
Another fact related to this is what happened in the United States a couple of months ago with the policies and, above all, the xenophobic discourse of Trump in these four years towards the South Americans, the tragedy of El Paso, where a person began to shoot Mexicans encouraged by the speech of: they are all rapists, drug traffickers, etc … These ideas are getting stuck and one got his head because Perhaps he was in a circumstance of unemployment, or in a situation of crisis in his life.
What do hate speech mean for the CIVES Educational and Assistance Foundation of which you are coordinator?
We use the formula of the European Commission to define them. It is any expression that generates a violation or an attack on individuals or groups or groups due to ethnicity, religion, etc.
What varieties are there of these kinds of speeches?
They are classified, above all, according to the group they violate. There is: transphobia, LGBTI phobia, anti-Semitic movements against the Jewish people, anti-Roma and Islamophobia, among others.
What do they pursue?
To deteriorate the image of a certain group that is considered external. For example, in the case of the Jews, the Germans and the party, the white and heterosexual population, who considered that the economic crisis was caused by the Jews, among other problems, were to be benefited. That hate speech generated a rejection in the rest of the population and served so that the group that was issuing it benefited from this situation.
Do you think, then, that freedom of expression should be limited so that these situations do not occur?
The dialogue should always be used without taking everything to the judicial field and without having to consider it a crime at all times, when someone goes beyond their opinions. I think that it would be necessary to eliminate any discourse that generates the cancellation of an individual or group. There is much debate about freedom of expression. Many people consider ethically that it should be more limited and others not.
What are the effects of hate speech on the person and the group?
At the individual level it affects self-esteem, the vision one has about oneself, other related psychological problems and even suicide can be reached. At the social level, discrimination is manifested that can be seen, for example, by vandalism, such as street painting, insults, physical aggressions, rapes, terrorist acts and, finally, genocide.
What feelings are generated by speeches about Trump and Vox immigrants?
That they are against human rights, they violate the fundamental rights of other groups, which should be penalized.
Show me an example of hate speech in Las Palmas.
The other day I saw a video where a boy appears on a bus that maintains a homophobic speech against two people who ride the same bus.