The reduction of the salary moves men away from care and conciliation | Society
Angel Albertos was asked one day in his work why he cared so much for his children, a three-year-old boy and a girl who is about to complete one. In Joaquim Montaner's house there were eight, he, his partner and six children, none of them over six years old, took measles at the same time. Hugo García is ertzaina and, although no one told him explicitly, he knows that his reduction in working hours affected the workload of his colleagues. Different cases with a common premise: share responsibility for care and the new burden of home It was not only necessary but inevitable. In spite of any comment, of the difficulty to achieve the organization or the invoice that could happen the absence.
The new paternity they are an increasingly growing figure: more involved in the upbringing, more willing to be part of the growth, education and day to day of their children, and with a growing feminist consciousness, according to one of the latest studies on male family reconciliation of the National University of Distance Education, prepared between May and July 2016 and for which 33 interviews were conducted in different communities and jobs: "In general, women seem to provide more care of the children, even among these relatively involved parents whose partners were working full-time.The work adaptations made to fatherhood varied, in addition, significantly ".
A pattern of male provider and female caretaker that, explains Teresa Jurado, the project director, is reflected for example in the male reluctance to adopt measures that mean a reduction in their salary, something that, in addition, "causes the stigmatization of women , who are more likely to accept penalties, "the text points out. At Hugo García's house, for example, he had a reduced working day for one year: "But my partner has had it since the birth of the children, always." In this sense, and to try to approach the equilibrium, the sociologist assures that "the reductions of day or the excelences are not suitable, and yes the compact days and the flexible schedule". To cover as much time as possible by both.
It is precisely in the reductions -26% of mothers versus 4.1% of parents- and unpaid leave - 11% versus 0.7% - where the gender gap is greater, according to data collected between 2010 and 2015. Jurado points to that "feeling of sacrifice" that women still have and that keeps them admitting more brakes, breaks and professional setbacks. In other cases, when the salary does not change, the difference is smaller. The permits are almost even, 100% of them and 90% of them [aunque por ley todavía son dispares, 16 semanas para ellas y cuatro para ellos]; the continuous schedule is taken by 14% of mothers and 10% of parents; the flexible schedule (between 25 and 44 years) has 50% of the progenitors and 46% of the parents; and, among those who opt for teleworking, the figure is identical, 3.5%.
Explains the project manager that we must remember that the great change was the full incorporation of women into the market labor (although with greater precarization) and the progressive increase of single-parent families. "70% of children live in homes where both work or with only one parent." Something that happens in the life of Joaquim Montaner, for example, who has lived with two of his children permanently for a while. "Reconciliation, by force, is increasingly necessary, or there is or there is." For those who share with the couple, "in this new world, it is sometimes a simple matter of calculation," says Jurado, who refers to the growing number of women who earn more than their male partners (20% of women aged 25 to 44 years old) or those who are the only or main breadwinners of the family, one in five. "It means that a large proportion of couples no longer have women as primary caregivers and should seek support." As in the case of Angel Albertos: "My partner is autonomous and works all day, I am unemployed at the moment, but when I have not been, their long working hours also meant that I saw fit to make a greater effort".
A support that, depending on the company, can be more or less easy. According to the testimonies collected, the best place to do it is the pymes. Something that has surprised even those who are behind the study. "You tend to think that public or large companies will facilitate conciliation, but sometimes the obstacles are greater (unions, agreements, little flexibility ...)." However, small and medium-sized companies "are more informal, they allow more innovation and there is not so much bureaucracy," Jurado explains, in any case, the most important thing in the end is the empathy of the bosses: "What most conditions what easy or difficult to reconcile is the similarity between the demands of the staff and those who decide. "
Explains Teresa Jurado, the director of the study, although there is much to follow further, there are five clear conclusions. "That anyone should be able to reconcile employment, whether or not they have children, with his family life; that, from the companies, it is necessary to take care of the staff with a long-term perspective; that changing the schedule to offer intensive days is possible; and shift work is also possible; finally, it is necessary for companies to trust in the management of time by employees, which is increasingly easy with new technologies. "