How to stop the destruction of natural wealth that means that more than half of the species of fauna and flora in Spain are in poor condition and only one 8% of the most valuable habitats well preserved? The Government's roadmap includes the closure of mink farms, the end of lead ammunition for hunting or declaring entire ecosystems endangered. It also intends to reintroduce almost half of the officially disappeared species, according to the draft of the Strategic Plan for Natural Heritage to 2030.
The state of biodiversity in the European Union in general – and Spain in particular – “continues to decline at an alarming rate”, according to the Brussels analysis. The plan now designed by the Ministry of Ecological Transition identifies the threats and details some specific measures with an expiration date.
Biodiversity suffers, above all, agricultural activities and urbanization, describes the document. "Agricultural activities (or sometimes their abandonment) represent the most frequent, widespread and relevant pressures," he says. In particular, the pollution of the natural environment. Logging affects, above all, mammals, arthropods and non-vascular plants. Coasts are victims of urbanization.
The evaluation is clear: "Pesticides, excess nutrients, plastics and microplastics and different heavy metals such as lead, affect soil and water." The Executive ensures that there will be a "continued cleaning and decontamination of plastics and microplastics in the marine and terrestrial environment." tackle the The arrival of toxins means that the agricultural sector adopts practices that avoid discharges into the soil and waterexplains this analysis.
To prevent the spread of toxins in ecosystems, the strategy states that regulations will be approved before 2025 to eliminate lead ammunition for hunting and fishing gear. The same measure would affect small game hunting (foxes, rabbits and birds) and sport shooting in 2030.
The strategy states that it will finally develop natural sound reserves with the aim of dampening the little-reported noise pollution. This figure is recognized in the noise law of 2003, but it has not peeped beyond. It is a matter of tracing areas where human activities do not disturb that wealth of natural sounds with their noise.
Among the new tools to stop the biological invasion "The progressive closure of the American mink farms will be programmed, which should culminate in 2030." That same year, the native species threatened by invasive varieties should be reduced by half. Next year, a specific regulation that regulates "the breeders of wild fauna species" should be approved.
In addition, it is intended to put into force a list of pet species: only varieties "of proven environmental harmlessness and health safety" may be pets. Animals that multiplied to be fashionable pets, such as the Argentine parrot or the Vietnamese pig, have spread and colonized in an uncontrolled way.
The Ministry of Ecological Transition commits that, by 2022, new measures will have been incorporated to prevent the death of birds on high-voltage lines. The norm will eliminate the obligation for public administrations to finance electricity companies to correct their turrets. 15 million euros per year, according to the decree that regulates the aid.
Every year between 11,000 and 33,000 specimens die electrocuted in flight, according to the Ministry of Ecological Transition. SEO-Birdlife calculates that only 3% of the birds that die in this way are detected.
It is also planned to review the measures against the use of poisoned baits in the natural environment. A practice applied by some game managers to eliminate predators that take away trophies from hunters.
The strategy includes two specific objectives for only eight years from now. By 2030, it promises that the species that were listed in 2018 as "critical" have turned their course so that there are none at that level of danger of disappearance. The list is made up of: the Cartagena rockrose, the little Shrike, the margaritathe marbled teal, the European mink, the common shellfish and the cantabrian capercaillie. In view of the latest reports, it does not seem like an easy task.
Secondly, the document says that at least 40% of the species included in the Spanish list of extinct, the catalog of disappearance. There are 32 species (19 flora and 13 fauna), among which are the right whale, the European lynx or the monk seal. Currently there are only two bird programs: the hermit ibis and the grouse.
The worst preserved habitats in Spain are the forests, according to the latest evaluation sent by Ecological Transition to Brussels. "The goal is to restore underrepresented forests and improve their status," says the Strategy. Until 2030 it is planned to create 200,000 hectares, including the "densification" of already degraded ones. "At least 120 million trees will be planted."
Regarding the battered Spanish rivers, the plan is the "elimination of barriers" in the courses, the "increase of the fluvial freedom space" and the restoration of 3,000 kilometers of rivers. By 2030, 20,000 hectares of wetlands should have been restored.
At sea, the plan says that specific zones will be created for trawling with the idea of "avoiding the extension of this practice to other areas." This activity described as "destructive" by environmental organizations has already had to be restricted in various parts of the Mediterranean to try to reach sustainable levels of fishing. In 2023 a study on the collisions of cetaceans with boats must be completed and in 2025, the regulation of measures to avoid these deaths.