The contract for young boys without training in Spain it does not take off. In a country with youth unemployment that doubles the community average, more than 30%, and with a dropout rate of 18.3%, its use is residual. Of the more than 22 million contracts that were signed in Spain in 2018Only 52,000 were training and apprenticeship contracts, 0.2%. Why is so little used? The first response that appears on everyone's lips makes the habitual suspect responsible: "Temporality eats it all". Stop there is more. Entrepreneurs talk about lack of flexibility. The economists also ask for it, but controlling the quality of the training. The unions talk about the lack of involvement of employers and a perverse use of the contract.
It is not the same to enter the labor market with a temporary contract than with one of training, the one destined for young people who leave the studies without qualifications soon. With the first, the chances of achieving a fixed job after two years are reduced to 1%; with the second, they go up to 33% without being prolonged by that time (many do not arrive), according to a recent study by Fedea de Marcel Jansen, of the Autonomous University of Madrid, and David Troncoso, of Pablo de Olavide. In contrast, in 2018 more than 20 million temporary contracts were signed (seven if only those under 30 are taken) compared to 52,803 for training.
This last figure represents 0.2% of the total contracts signed last year. A very low percentage, similar to that of 2016 and 2017, which shows its very scarce use. And this year is still going the worst way. In January, only 3,003 of these contracts were signed, compared to 6,028 the previous year. After much of the fall is the last change of regulation. In 2012, the maximum age to sign these contracts was raised from 25 to 29 years, subject to the fact that the unemployment rate was above 15%. In 2018, when it went down to 14.5%, it turned to the limit of 25.
Miguel Ángel Malo, from the University of Salamanca, blames this failure on temporality. "Everything is eaten", summarizes quickly this Economics professor who coordinated in 2017 a book about the problems of young Europeans in the labor market. Coincide with him sources of the Ministry of Labor, and add "The use of non-labor figures" to cover these positions, such as scholarships.
With a duration that can go from one year to three, the training and learning contract is not the only one that, theoretically, serves as a gateway to the labor market. There is also the internship, but this is for those who have a university degree or FP. The first, on the other hand, is the path for those who left school early: in 2017, 18.3% of young people between 18 and 24 years old left without a post-compulsory secondary education degree.
Temporality and bureaucracy
To the temporality, Jansen adds "the bureaucracy": "It has a very guaranteed regulation. A more flexible regulation is needed. " "There has to be control," he says, although this should not hinder his development. The same points a directive of a regional foundation that works with these young people and who prefers not to give his name. "It is not easy to deal with these contracts," he says. He knows perfectly the necessary bureaucracy so that the Administration accepts the training plan that goes hand in hand with the contract and that an approved center must provide. This training allows the worker to achieve a certificate of professionalism. If the autonomous council accepts the plan, it gives rise to bonuses, the financing of training costs and up to 720 euros per year per trainee for the company to assume the tutorship.
"That it does not work is clear," they write in Trabajo, where they say they plan to reform this contract but have not yet thought about the details. They only add that it is necessary to "lighten the management of the elements of training".
In 2015, the administrative requirements were lower, although it did not involve obtaining a certificate. But that generated lack of control. So the Government, then of the PP, raised the bar. The use fell. "As soon as you demand quality …", Francisco Rueda, Deputy Minister of Employment in Castilla-La Mancha starts. "Many small companies find it hard to take on the role of a training company," she recalls, recalling that Spain is a country of SMEs.
The analysis of Lola Santillana, CC OO Employment Manager, is harsher: "It does not work because companies do not get involved," he explains. This trade unionist asks "to avoid that, as now, the graduates can be hired with this modality if the certificate of professionalism does not adjust to their previous training and that several contracts can be linked by changing the type of contract". Eduardo Magali, responsible for Youth of UGT, points to "a cultural problem. There is no idea of investing in training. There are sectors that use it, such as the hospitality industry, but it is to save costs, "he laments.
The unionists' vision clashes with that of Juan Carlos Tejeda, Director of Training of CEOE. "The regulation has to approach the reality of the companies", this director begins: "Nocturnality is not allowed and there are trades in which it is important". It also demands that the age requirements be eliminated. However, Tejeda does add some self-criticism: "It is not difficult to assume the tradition of other countries. Companies should get more involved. "