The CEOE affirms that "psychological traits and non-cognitive abilities" influence women to charge less, although it is a factor that contributes to wage differences in a "not very high" way. These different characteristics between men and women can affect the way they negotiate and the propensity to take risks and, as a result, may end up playing a certain role in setting wages, the employers said. a report on the salary gap presented this Friday, coinciding with the feminist protest of March 8.
"Different studies analyze the effects of different psychological traits and non-cognitive abilities of men and women on their salaries and professional careers, and while women have advantages in areas such as interpersonal relationships, men seem to have greater propensity to take risks and to negotiate and compete.This circumstance originates, according to these studies, that men rotate more between jobs in search of better wages, that they choose occupations with better remunerations or that they get better wages in negotiations with their companies, which can generate wage differences between both groups, "says the document commissioned to the consultant PWC. In economic literature, people often talk about ask gap, the fact that women tend to demand less with respect to their salaries.
However, the report highlights that despite these indications found "it does not seem that the influence of these aspects is very high". "We must bear in mind that these differences in preferences could be partly generated by factors associated with education received by some and by others and social or cultural factors," he adds.
According to the study published on Monday, women in 2014 charged an average of 12.2% less than men. And that salary gap has been reduced by 30% since 2002, when there was a difference of 16.9%. Moreover, the employer maintains that much of this gap corresponds to generational differences, because the salary distance detected in the youngest cohorts is much lower, 4.9% in those under 30 years, says the employers. This "is a good indication that the gap could continue to fall during the coming years," as the elderly "gradually leave the labor market," says the text.
On the contrary, the bad news provided by the study is that the wage gap increases the higher the level of wages, which in the opinion of the CEOE represents "a clear signal of the existence in Spain of the glass ceiling"These" invisible barriers that impede or hinder women's access to the most relevant positions in organizations could be reduced by promoting the professional development of co-responsibility, "says the report. In the 5% of workers who charge less, the difference is 9.1%. In contrast, in the 5% of workers with higher salaries it amounts to 16.6%.
"Denying the wage gap seems absurd to me," CEO Celaya president Antonio Garamendi said during a press conference on Friday. However, the employers do want to qualify the data that is usually used in the debate. "Not every difference is discrimination, and to resolve these wage differences, the causes must be identified," said Val Díez, president of the Equality and Diversity Commission of the employers' association.
According to data from the INE of 2014, the difference between what a woman and a man charges amounts to an average of 20%. But the PWC study tries to identify what this step is about. And the distance is reduced to 14% Once the hours worked are taken into account: men usually accumulate longer days. In 2014, they worked 29% less hours than they did. "Reductions in working hours fall mainly on women because of the role they play in families. Therefore, the conciliation should not correspond only to them, "said Díez.
The difference also decreases to 12.2% wielded by employers after trying to suppress the effect of other factors such as age, seniority in work, education and training or the presence of more men in better paid sectors. "That a group of architects receives more than one group of professors is not discrimination. But there are more men in the first group because of cultural preferences. As more women enter technical careers, it will be improved, "said Val Díez. The studies conducted in recent years have thrown gaps between 9% and 22%, recalls the employer.
Even so, Ten recognizes that "it is true that there is 12.2% that does not correspond to objective reasons". Hence, the CEOE advocates that more transparency and greater awareness and awareness in society are necessary. As for the measures to be taken, these should always be articulated by engaging in a dialogue with the Administrations and within the framework of collective bargaining between companies and unions, the employers' organization stresses. In any case, the report ensures that the wage gap in Spain is below the European average or countries such as Germany, United Kingdom or France.
Garamendi has argued that many companies do well by giving back to women as well as men. "That is persecuted to which it discriminates and it does not do it", has riveted. According to the president of the employer's association, from now on, the CEOE will follow the evolution of this gap to ensure that it continues to fall.