Work or conciliation reasons and economic reasons are the main reasons why Spanish women have had fewer children than desired, according to the INE's 2018 Fertility Survey, whose progress of results has been published this Wednesday. Most of those under 35 expect to have more children. This is the main reason that Spanish women show when they are asked why they have less children than desired (44% of respondents do so). But the following reasons are labor, conciliation or economic reasons. According to the survey, which gives continuity to those conducted in 1977, 1985 and 1999, almost three out of four women would want to have at least two children.
The main incentive to births that women demand from the State, regardless of their age, is the increase in the duration of maternity and paternity leave. Per percentages, the highest proportion is registered in the group between 30 and 34 years (31.1%) and from 35 to 39 years (29.1%). The second most important birth incentive for women under 40 is the flexibility in working hours for fathers and mothers with young children. For those who are 40 or older, the second most important measure is an allowance for families with dependent children under 18 years of age.
On the other hand, 28.6% of women under 25 do not believe that the birth rate should be encouraged. A percentage that decreases with age. 27% of those under 25 years of age declare that they do not want to have children, compared to 17% of those between 25 and 29 years old. The percentage reaches 12.6% in the group between 30 and 34 years old, the one with the highest fertility at present. Only one in ten women over the age of 30 does not want to be a mother.
The survey analyzes the barriers and incentives of Spanish society when it comes to being mothers or fathers. The main novelty in the methodology used in this edition of the survey is that for the first time men have been interviewed. According to the results released on Wednesday, their answers do not vary much from those offered by women. The biggest difference is in the percentage of men who want to have three children, which is lower than that of women. 25% of women want to have three children, although the percentage exceeds 27% in those over 35 years. 20% of men over 30 years of age want to have three children, compared to 16.1% of those between 25 and 29 years old and 10.4% of those under 25 years of age.
Most men, like women, want to have two children (almost half of those between 25 and 29 years of age and 10.4% of those under 25). As with women, the percentage of men who do not want to have children decreases with increasing age. Thus 32.1% of those under 25 do not want to have them, compared to 10.2% of those over 40 years.
To survey the survey, 17,037 people between 18 and 55 years old (14,446 women and 2,591 men) were surveyed. The data released this Wednesday is an advance in results, once a part of the questionnaires has been studied. The final results will be published in April 2019, according to the press release issued by the INE.