The American Frances Arnold (Pittsburg, USA, 1956), George Smith (Norwalk, USA, 1941) and Gregory Winter (Leicester, 1951) have won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 for having "taken control of the evolution and having used its same principles to develop proteins that solve many problems of humanity, "said the Royal Academy of Sciences.
Arnold receives half the prize and his two colleagues share the other.
Last year's prize went to Jacques Dubochet (Aigle, Switzerland, 1942), Joachim Frank (Siegen, Germany, 1940) and Richard Henderson (Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 1945) for their contribution to the development of technologies to generate three-dimensional images of the molecules of life. His work is applied in technologies to better understand biological processes such as infections or sleep cycles. In the words of the academy, its merit consists of "the development of electronic cryomicroscopy for the determination at high resolution of the structure of biomolecules in a solution".
Of the 168 people who have won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry since 1901, four are women, 2.3% of the total. The award has an endowment of nine million Swedish crowns, about 870,000 euros.