Arrives late apologizing because a meeting was extended. And he leaves looking at the clock because another one is waiting for him. Pilar Llop (Madrid, 1973) He has not had time to change things from his office, on Calle Alcalá in Madrid, which he arrived at last July. Next to the door hangs a photo of his predecessor with the team. In the background, an image of Clara Campoamor.
The Government delegate for Gender Violence, daughter of a taxi driver and a hairdresser, has a degree in Law from the Complutense University of Madrid and a specialist in legal translation of English and Spanish from the University of Alicante. In his curriculum, he has mastered three languages besides Spanish (English, French and German) and defends himself in Italian and Bulgarian. She worked for one year in Bulgaria as a consultant for a project to strengthen the judicial system of that country. In Spanish he speaks slowly and caresses his gut. She is pregnant with her first daughter.
I arrive to the new position from the Assembly of Madrid, where she has been deputy for three years for the PSOE, a party in which she does not play. Before that, she was a lawyer for the Technical Office of the General Council of the Judiciary, where she held, among other positions, the headquarters of the Section Observatory on Domestic Violence and Gender. Their status as a judge specialized in gender violence is noted, mainly in technical explanations and caution. The interview takes place mid-morning on Tuesday, December 18, when Bernardo Montoya has not yet been arrested. confessed murderer of Laura Luelmo, nor has it transpired that the autopsy points to a sexual assault. Llop made a first assessment of the case without knowing therefore those facts and declined to expand it after they had already transcended.
Question. What fails if it is questioned more than a woman running alone that the fact that a man should not attack her?
Answer. Society is still very stereotyped. Where there are more prejudices is in crimes against sexual freedom. It is thought that a woman who has suffered a rape must be destroyed when she declares or questions why she has left for a certain area. Women have to be free in all public spaces. Machismo wants us to disappear from those spaces.
P. What measures would serve to try to avoid cases like Laura Luelmo?
The training of judges to deal with sexist violence has been insufficient
R. Supervision and surveillance, the performance of security forces and local entities. Urban planning has a clear gender impact, we have to make safe areas for women, well-lit accesses, that do not have to enter through an alley. There are measures that affect all Public Administrations in a transversal manner. But there are areas in a field where you can not have a policeman every 10 kilometers, obviously.
P. 47 women have been killed by their partners or ex-partners this year; 974 since 2003. What should be done?
R. Eradicating violence against women is the commitment of all administrations, not only violence in the area of the couple or ex-partner but in its entirety. We must improve the fight against aspects that provoke such violence: education, the institutional response, aid. A democracy in which half of the population pours violence on the other half is not democracy.
P. Three out of four murdered did not report. Why do not they trust the system?
R. There is a hidden bag of abuse. From the last macro-survey [de violencia contra la mujer, publicada en 2015] it can be deduced that some 600,000 women who have suffered it did not report. That is why it is very important that, as the Government approved in August, certain labor or Social Security aids can be given without a complaint having been filed, so that they may have an improvement in their living conditions. Economic independence is fundamental.
P. As a judge, do you consider that the Spanish judiciary is well prepared to deal with cases of gender violence?
R. In Spain there are 106 specialized and 355 compatible courts, which also carry other subjects, in small towns. Little by little, with the experience that there has been in the courts, a reform of the Organic Law of the Judicial Power was reached in 2009 to make the training of judges mandatory. With the experience of the years, it has been seen that this training has been insufficient, because we still see some judicial resolutions in which the gender perspective does not apply even though the General Council of the Judicial Power has made ongoing training for magistrates and magistrates online…
P. They are 50-hour courses.
R. It is necessary to intensify the training. There is a legislative initiative in Congress for the courts against violence to be constituted as a jurisdiction within the criminal, but specialized. That goes at least to ensure that judges specialize as do the minors or commercial.
P. Is prostitution gender violence?
R. Any form of procuring and sexual exploitation is. Most of the people who are being sexually exploited are women.
P. I ask about prostitution.
R. Most of the sexually exploited women and also in a very high percentage who are being treated for sexual exploitation are destined to prostitution. We can understand that in that area it is gender violence.
P. To discourage prostitution must the client be penalized?
R. There are many ways to discourage, from the education itself, that children understand that when you have sexual affective relationships implies respect for the other human being. Also with awareness campaigns.
P. The penalty is in the electoral program of the PSOE and is an axis of abolitionist models. In your point of view, should we penalize it?
R. There are also administrative measures, the Citizen Security Law is already collected and, in addition, the fines are very serious. It must be understood that Criminal Law is the last sanctioning step. With prostitution we must do what the State Pact says, with consensus of all political forces.
P. The State Pact does not speak of sanctions. Do you think the penalties should be in the law or not?
R. I believe that in a democratic society there is no room for prostitution.
P. You said: "I am not a politician. When I finish this stage I will return to my court. "
R. I miss it so much. I like contact with the victims, with reality. I am a trench judge.
P. Vox, who has broken into Andalusia with 12 deputies, proposes to replace the Comprehensive Law against Gender Violence with a law on intrafamily violence.
A. There are certain resistances to our law, which can be defined as the most constitutional law of all because it is one of those that have overcome more unconstitutionality resources in our democracy. To counteract this we have the State Pact where all the political forces at this moment have agreed to approve 217 measures in Congress and 269 in the Senate. It is not negligible.
Q. One of the issues that this party insists on is the false accusations.
R. Whenever a speech of this law is made come out with this kind of scientifically counteracted myths. The General Council of the Judiciary made a study of sentences where it warned that the false allegations were 0.0015%, very low. It is curious that there is talk of false allegations in these crimes but does not arise in others, such as robberies, where there are many interposed to defraud the insurance. And it must be added that when there are files or dismissals or acquittals in criminal phase in a case of gender violence does not mean that it is a false report, but that the fact has not been proven, because there are no peripheral elements or only Count on the victim's statement.