A variety of arches, a group of unicellular microorganisms, collected on the seabed near Japan Y laboratory grown, has offered explanation to mysterious evolutionary leap to complex life on Earth.
In an article published in the magazine ‘Nature‘, a group of Japanese scientists describes the culture of Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum samples and establishes a possible link between theThe primitive arches and the development of eukaryotes, the complex cells of which living beings are composed.
One of the great mysteries of science is how primitive bacteria-like organisms evolved into much more sophisticated organisms called eukaryotes. Scientists believe that life appeared on Earth approximately 4,000 million years. They also believe that the first life forms were bacteria-like organisms similar to modern archaea, a group of organisms with a very simple type of cell structure, do not have a nucleus, for example.
The next evolutionary stage remains a mystery, although researchers they believe it happened about 2 billion years ago. How did a member of the archaea evolve to become a eukaryote? Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cell structures, such as plants and animals. A theory that has become popular suggests that a certain type of archaea was swallowed by another, and that the one that was ingested became a group of organelles. In this new effort, the team in Japan has developed a theory based on a kind of arches that they cultivated in their laboratory.
The work consisted of recovering mud samples containing archaea, collectively known as Asgard arches, from the ocean floor near Japan, and cultivating the lines that developed in special chambers with methane infusion; the researchers had to wait three years before you can separate them in individuals and groups due to its slow growth.
After several more years, they began to focus on a particular strain they called Candidatus Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum. Its characteristics suggested that it closely resembled the ancient archaea that had become eukaryotic cells. The researchers continued to study the microbes for several more years; they discovered that the organisms grew to approximately 550 nm in diameter and degraded the amino acids through syndrophy. They also discovered that they had long, branched bumps.
After careful observation of the organisms, the researchers developed a theory: they suggest that a bacterium got entangled in branched bumps and evolved into an organelle and that led to the development of eukaryotes.