There is a map of the world that is basically divided into two colors. One permeates 70 countries, where being gay or lesbian is illegal, even lethal. Another dyes the 123 nations where having sex with people of the same sex is not punished. The largest defense association of the LGTBI collective in the world draws this sketch periodically, how the places where people are persecuted for their sexual orientation decrease and new threats emerge, such as the coming to power of homophobic leaders.
In the report State Homophobia 2019 of the International Association of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transsexual and Intersex (ILGA), released this Wednesday, have been deleted from the atlas of infamy India, Trinidad and Tobago and Angola since the last revision, of 2017. Australia, Malta, Germany and Austria have joined the equal marriage, being already 26 countries on the podium of equal rights. The organization also highlights as a symbol of greater protection that nine nations have included in their constitution the explicit mention that sexual orientation should not be grounds for discrimination. Among them Portugal, Ecuador, Bolivia or South Africa, an island of equality in the African panorama.
The extensive work of ILGA, of more than 500 pages, reviews the legislation in all the member countries of the UN. The 17th edition was presented during the annual meeting of the federation, in Aotearoa (New Zealand). Its author is the Argentine lawyer Lucas Ramón Mendos.
The danger of dying to maintain homosexual relations has not diminished with respect to the last report. Six countries punish him with the death penalty: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Yemen, Sudan, 12 States of Nigeria and part of Somalia. In addition, a gay man may be sentenced to death in Mauritania, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The report highlights that although Iraq has disappeared from the list "because of the elimination of the Islamic State, it remains a country that criminalizes de facto because he persecutes homosexuals using laws of public scandal, prostitution and others. "
In another 26, the maximum sentence for these acts varies between 10 years in prison and life imprisonment. In 31 it is punishable by up to eight years. In summary, in one of every three countries (35%) it is dangerous to be a member of the LGTBI community. In 68 nations, the study notes, "there are laws that explicitly prohibit consensual sexual acts between people of the same sex and two more criminalize them. de facto. In addition, jurisdictions that do not belong to UN member states also punish these behaviors, such as Gaza, the Cook Islands and certain provinces of Indonesia. "
Death and imprisonment are extreme cases of violence that, from the peak of power, is inflicted with laws. At least 32 countries, the report emphasizes, have promoted measures to limit freedom of expression (including propaganda laws that prohibit the promotion of homosexuality or "non-traditional" sexual relations.) 41 nations impose obstacles to LGBTI organizations to be legalized or work, "which increases the danger to which activists are exposed".
The situation in Chechnya is described as "critical" and reflects the tortures and persecutions inflicted by the authorities on gays and lesbians. Last January they reported that two people had died and 40 more remained in detention. The regressions and threats are part of the panorama that the report draws. Hours before the presentation, General Jair Bolsonaro, president of Brazil declared in Washington after meeting with his new ally in so many things, Donald Trump: "We respect the traditional family, we are God fearing, against the gender ideology, of the politically correct and of the fake news"
Although slower than desired, ILGA members point out, there is also progress. Perhaps the most obvious is, as highlighted in this year's edition, that India, a country of great scope and influence, has ended a Victorian law that prohibited homosexual relations, punishable by a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.
26 countries recognize same-sex marriage and 27 have regulated civil unions, 72 nations have laws that protect homosexuals and lesbians from being discriminated against at work. 39 have norms that punish incitement to hatred, discrimination or violence against a person because of sexual orientation and 28 allow the adoption of gays and lesbians.