China's main economic planning body, the National Reform and Development Commission (CNRD), announced that restrictions on the residence of 'hukou' (a kind of "internal passport") in urban areas of up to 3 million will be removed. population.
The institution published a document on its website entitled "Key tasks for the construction of the new urbanization in 2019", in which it requires local authorities to annul restrictions on access to basic services for immigrants from other areas – usually rural- of the country.
Likewise, the CNRD indicates that in the cities of between 3 and 5 million permanent inhabitants, the conditions for obtaining a residence permit must be provided.
Beijing already announced in 2015 that it wanted to regularize the situation of 13 million rural immigrants, number of people not registered in the country according to the 2010 census, although the number is probably higher now.
The 'hukou' was established in 1958, during the period in power of Mao Zedong, to control mass migration in the country and ensure continued agricultural production and social stability in the cities.
This system, a guarantee for access to basic social benefits, led to several problems: the migration from the countryside to the city meant that many of the immigrants lost their right to these services, since their 'hukou' was not their city of work , but that of his hometown.
In addition, these people often leave their children in their hometowns, which weakens family structures: according to figures released by local media, some 61 million children are far from one of their two parents.
Within this figure, there are seven million children in rural areas whose two parents have had to emigrate and leave them in charge of other relatives.
The total number of floating population – rural migrants who do not officially appear in the censuses of the cities where they reside – of China stood at 2018 in 241 million people, which represents a decrease of 3.8 million with respect to the previous year.