Some 2.9 million Brazilians, 25% of the 11.6 million who were unemployed in the last quarter of 2019, are looking for a job opportunity at least two years ago, according to a study released Friday by the government.
The figure rises to 4.56 million, almost 40% of the unemployed in Brazil, if those seeking employment are taken into account more than a year ago, according to the study of the state-run Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) .
Despite the seriousness of their situation, the numbers are lower than those registered in the last quarter of 2018, when the unemployed looking for a job more than two years ago added up to 3.1 million and those who expected more than a year ago 5 millions.
The reduction came thanks to the fact that the average unemployment rate in Brazil fell from 12.3% of the economically active population in 2018 to 11.9% in 2019, the lowest rate since 2016.
According to the figures of the IBGE, the labor market, with a reduction in the number of unemployed and the increase in employees and those formally hired, finally began to reflect the slow recovery of the Brazilian economy after the historic recession of 2015 and 2016.
Although the economy began to recover in 2017, with a growth of 1.3%, since that slow recovery remained in 2018 (1.3%), unemployment only began to give way in 2019, by the time a 1.1% expansion.
According to the Government, the reduction of the so-called long-term unemployment, when a person needs more than a year to relocate, is one of the main indicators of the reaction of the labor market.
“Considering that the number of discouraged people (those who gave up looking for a job) remained stable, the reduction in the long-term unemployed line is not a sign that people gave up looking for employment but that they are getting it,” said economist Adriana Beinguy, responsible for unemployment studies at IBGE.
According to the agency, the number of discouraged, that is to say those who have already given up seeking employment, remained stable at 4.6 million people between 2018 and 2019.
The study also showed that, despite the fall in unemployment, the average informality rate last year reached a record 41.1% of the employed population, that is, 38.4 million Brazilian workers were self-employed.
In a year 1.8 million Brazilians joined the contingent of informals.
Despite this, the percentage of Brazilians with formal employment reached 51.5% in Sao Paulo, the most populous and richest state in Brazil and is expected to lead the offer of formal jobs.
The numbers released this Friday show that Afro-descendants remain the majority among the unemployed in the country despite representing more than half of the population and that this gap is still widening.
Of the unemployed in the last quarter of last year in Brazil, 34.2% were white and 64.8% Afro-descendant (13% black and 51.8% mulatto). In 2012, Afro-descendants were 59.1% of the unemployed (10.2% black and 48.9% mulatto) and whites 40.2%.
While the average unemployment rate for whites last year was 8.7%, that percentage was 13.5% for blacks and 12.6% for mulattos.
By gender, unemployment affected 9.2% of men and 13.1% of women in the last quarter of last year.
And by age, the strip most affected by unemployment is that between 18 and 24 years old, with 23.8% of unemployed, a percentage that is reduced to 10.3% among those who are 25 and 39 years old, to 6 , 6% among those who are 40 and 59 years old and 4.2% for those over 60.
For schooling, the most affected, with a rate of 18.5%, are those who did not complete high school. Among those with full university education, unemployment is 5.6%.