Researchers from the University of Uppsala in Sweden have devised a new model for the Universe that can solve the enigma of dark energy. According to this model, the Universe it would be moving on the surface of a cosmic bubble that is expanding, as reported in a statement.
The surface of that expanding bubble would be two-dimensional, so its expansion would be specified in an additional dimension to conform the structure of the universe that we experience in everyday life, which has three spatial dimensions and one temporal, informs Trends 21.
We have known for 20 years that the Universe is expanding at an increasingly accelerated rate. The explanation of this expansion has been attributed to the "dark energy" that pervades everything, pushing the Universe to expansion, because it is a force contrary to gravity. Understanding the nature of this dark energy is one of the main enigmas of fundamental physics.
For a long time, string theory has been expected to provide the answer. According to string theory, all matter consists of tiny, vibrating, "rope-like" entities.
The string theory also requires that there be more spatial dimensions, in addition to the three that are already part of everyday knowledge: some modern physical theories indicate that our universe would have even 11 dimensions: 7 spatial dimensions, in addition to the three that we recognize with our senses, plus the temporal one.
For 15 years, there have been various models of string theory that are believed to give rise to dark energy. However, these models have received increasingly harsh criticism, and several researchers are claiming that none of the models proposed to date is viable.
New model with dark energy
The Swedish scientists propose a new model seg, which the entire Universe is located at the edges of an expanding cosmic bubble. Dark energy, according to this model, would not be anything other than the expansive nature of that cosmic bubble on which our Universe rides.
They point out that all the matter existing in the Universe is formed by the ends of those cords that extend from the expanding bubble to that additional dimension, which means that our universe would be a kind of "bridge station" between dimensions: the two dimensions of the bubble and the additional dimension that is added to our perceptible world.
They add that probably there are more bubbles, independent to the one that sustains our Universe, which in turn would support more universes, besides ours. In this way, they consider that his model can be considered a derivative of string theory, of which the multiverse concept is also part.
The Uppsala scientists' model provides a new and different picture of the creation and future of the Universe, while also paving the way for string theory testing methods, Swedish scientists consider.
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