All women are summoned this March 8 to support a new strike in search of an inescapable achievement: gender equality in the world
Millions of women around the world will come this 8M to the streets to demand equality. Photo: Shutterstock
"Think of equality, let's build with intelligence, innovate for change". This is the motto that the UN has chosen to celebrate this year the International Day of Women. The organization emphasizes innovation, but this is only a small part of the efforts needed to achieve gender equality.
In Spain, like a year ago, the 8M Commission has called on all women to join a strike that has four axes:work, student, care and consumption.
Mobilization is necessary in order to achieve an achievement that is unavoidable. And it is still a long way ahead as we will see below.
The true origin of March 8
The feminist struggle began in the nineteenth century in the United States, accompanied by an industrialized world that decimated the rights of women within the work
The story goes back toMarch 8, 1857. Hundreds of seamstresses demonstrated in the streets of New York for somebetter working conditions. They claimedreductions of working hoursmore than 12 hours, andhigher salaries, which were between 60% and 70% lower than those of men. This was the beginning of what we know today as theInternational Day of Working Women.
On February 28, 1909, it was the first time that amobilization of Socialist Women in the United States. They continued to hold a strike at the end of February each year until 1913. Two years later, one of the biggest disasters in American industry occurred:146 workers died in Triangle Shirtwaist, a renowned textile factory, for a fire.
The massacre also occurred on March 8. TheworkersThey mobilized in front of one of the many industries led by men of the time to the cry of bread and roses !, claiming better working conditions. The 146 workers of the Triangle Shirtwaist were locked in the factory, the managers of the company had sealed the doors in order to avoid theft.
Trade union of women workers
After thefire, theInternational Trade Union of Women Textile Workers, to protect working conditions and women's rights. In1910, in Europe, theII International Conference of Socialist Womenestablished the International Day of Working Women, as a tribute to the struggle for the rights of women and to achieve universal female suffrage.
Clara Zetkin, leader ofSocial Democratic Party of Germanyand founder of the newspaper La Igualdad, was the driving force behind the proposal. In addition, it became one of the most important expression channels of socialist women of the time. One year later,Austria, Denmark, Germany and SwitzerlandThey proclaimed the International Women's Day for the first time, according to UN data.
Bread and peace!
TheRussian womenThey have played an important role in the feminist struggle. These were mobilized before (1913-1914) and after (1917) of theFirst World Warwith the cry of bread and peace !. After the mobilization in 1917, the Tsar was forced to abdicate and the provisional government granted the women theright to vote.
In1975, the UNI set March 8 as the International Women's Day. Since then, this day has been losing its character worker, to become a date of demand for equality between men and women in all areas, not only in the workplace.
Today,More than 40 countries have joinedto strike in order to build a world where men and women are equal.In SpainSince 1978, women have fought for the constitution to collect their rights. Last year there was a historical and relevant fact in the feminist struggle:120 citiesThey went on strike, stoppages and demonstrations against discrimination, violence and harassment.
The reality of the salary gap in Spain
Two young people in a demonstration at the International Day of Women.Photo: Alberto Estvez
While the average annual salary of men is 25,993 euros, that of women is 20,052, according to INE data
Thewage gapcontinues to exist and we are still far from gender equality in thelabor compensation. According to data fromNational Institute of Statistics, in its last estimate in 2016,women charge 23% lessthan men in gross annual compensation. While the average annual salary of men is 25,993 euros, that of women is 20,052.
These data are qualified by economistsannual salary gap unadjusted. The deniers of the existence of the wage gap argue that, by making a more accurate analysis and comparing similar jobs, the difference between the salaries of men and women disappears. According to a research study of theFoundation of Applied Economics Studies (Fedea), the argument is not true.
Thescientific studyestablishes that a woman earns an average of one hour per13% less than a man in jobs with similar characteristics. This information is part of the calladjusted wage gap, that is, it takes into account a more detailed analysis of the situation at work, with more specific variables.
Fedea's study concludes thatthe adjusted wage gaps are greaterwhen you enter the variables age, seniority in the company, permanent and full-time contracts and sectors where there is a greater male presence. However, this is reduced a bit when the variable is enterededucation level. Therefore, the study shows that the salary differences are real in most cases.
The difference between the percentage of annual remuneration, 23%, and the percentage of remuneration per hour, 13%, is due to the fact that75% of part-time jobs are occupied by women, according to Eurostat data. Therefore, the annual percentage is higher than the percentage per hour worked because women work fewer hours than men.
Pay less to a woman than to a man is illegal according to thestatus of workers. In this it is established that both genders mustcharge the same for works of the same value. In spite of the planned measures, the difficulties to access a certain job, the poor conditions once achieved and the differences in the time commitment, make the wage gap between men and women continue to exist. The following graph shows the salary gap for autonomous communities:
If we assume the learnings of feminism, men will be better
Octavio Salazar, author of the book #WeToo, talks about how necessary is the pedagogue to guide young people to become egalitarian
Octavio Salazar is clear that men have to move and transform to change the world towards a more egalitarian one. The catedrtico of the Faculty of Law of Crdoba has been growing concern, after checking a rise in sexist behavior among young people.
Through his #WeToo book, in which he shakes the foundations of patriarchal society, he offers a guide to open spaces for reflection in the classrooms, in the streets and in life. Some pages committed to guide the youngest to become egalitarian people.
P. The #WeToo book is a work directed, above all, to young people. Have you detected in your classes that there is an involvement with equality or are macho attitudes appreciated?
R. What I have noticed is that in the case of the boys there is a kind of reaffirmation of very traditional and macho behaviors. In a context, in which young boys are usually very lost, a part of them responds by reaffirming themselves in the most traditional concept: they are on the defensive, when you talk to them about feminism and what it implies, there is a kind of wall because they understand it as a threat.
Q. What attitude do you notice among young boys: do they feel part of the feminist struggle or questioned?
R. I think that the boys see their partners, who tend to be clearer and get better grades, who have also been incorporated into the feminist movement, they feel that they are losing ground. In many cases, instead of being clear that feminism also has to do with them, they are in a kind of trench. This reaction is not only of young people, also, of society in general and of men in particular, who are responding to the defensive against feminism.
Q. Do you think that certain television programs aimed at young people can accentuate or normalize certain macho attitudes?
R. I think it's one of the biggest difficulties we have right now. Not only television programs, but also the world of the Internet and social networks, where they live almost permanently. Most of the references that they receive, either through music videos or television series that they consume on the mobile, what they do is reproduce the most traditional models of men, women, of relations between both sexes And, for Of course, everything that has to do with love, sexuality … It's a permanent aspect of what I call a bad education.
P. Traditionally, romantic love has been spoken of as the ideal love. How much dao has that idea? Are young people still looking for this concept?
R. Much of the products they consume (novels, movies, series) reproduce what has been called the myths of romantic love. In fact, a few years ago it became fashionable, thanks to a novel, to represent love through a padlock. What a terrible idea that love is a lock that closes with a key!
I think there is something toxic in love relationships. Ah is the germ of what can then lead to situations of gender violence
P. A symbol of possession
R. Many contents continue insisting on the concepts of love as possession, the search for the average orange, the idea of control. And through the new technologies young people are reproducing, in a still more perverse way, those mechanisms that have to do with the control of the other person.
And with that understanding, I think there's something toxic in love relationships. Ah is the germ of what can then lead to situations of gender violence and, ultimately, to situations in which girls are more vulnerable.
Q. What audio-visual content do you think is appropriate and educational regarding feminism and will you recommend your students or your own children?
R. Each chapter of #WeToo has a series of suggestions, recommendations that have to do, in many cases, with texts and documents, but also with audiovisual products that complement what is explained in each section: feminism, equality, love. .
But, to cite a more concrete example, I've seen the series Sex Education, on Netflix, and I think it's a fantastic product to work with young people. Ah many issues are raised that have to do with sexuality, with personal relationships, with the diversity of sexual orientation, even abortion. It's a very intelligent, sensible and humorous way, and I think it's a very educational series.
We have to work with men with all the proposals of feminism so that they feel challenged by it
Q. How can we turn the #metoo movement into something plural that involves boys and girls?
R. As I pretend with the book, we have to do a lot of pedagogy directed to the boys so that, effectively, they understand what feminism really supposes: that it is not a threat and a war against them. And let them assume that feminism is also a proposal for emancipation for men.
If we assume all that series of learnings that come from feminism, men will be better and in the end society will also be much better. We have to work with men with all the proposals of feminism so that they feel challenged by it.
Q. Will that be the male revolution?
R. When women leave on March 8 to claim certain things in the streets, we must understand that a good part of those claims affect us, how we behave, how we relate, how we continue to occupy the majority of power, and , therefore, if we do not transform ourselves, this world will hardly change towards a more egalitarian one. We are the ones who have to move tab.
Radiography of unemployment: unemployment is fattened with women
The National Institute of Statistics registers a 12.87% unemployment in women, compared to 16.26% of men
As every year, on March 8, several activities will be denounced throughinequalities between men and women, among them, those relating to thework environment. The economic crisis of 2008 accentuates the differences within the work and punishes women with a higher number of unemployed than in the case of men.
According to data fromNational Institute of Statistics (INE), registered unemployment in women is 16.26%, compared to 12.87% of men. Added to this data is the fact that women have fewer opportunities to enter the labor market, assigned competences are lower and working conditions are worse.
In addition, as the report indicatesGender gaps in the Spanish labor market of the FedeaThere are more women trained at an educational level than men, although unemployment rates are still higher when it comes to women. TheOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)He affirms that there are more women between 25 and 34 years old with higher education, but there are more men who get a job with those same qualifications.
Next, agraphicwhich shows the evolution of the unemployment rate by sex and that reflects how the feminine one has been gradually reduced since 2013.
This other graphicgraphicContrast unemployment data by Autonomous Community to reflect the differences between men and women. Some Autonomous Communities, such as Extremadura, Ceuta, Melilla and Castilla La Mancha are clear examples of the prevailing inequality.
What are the professions with more women?
The masculinized jobs have only 3.6% of women.Photo: Shutterstock
Works as plumber, mason or taxi drivers only have a 3.6% female presence
The wage gap is not the only evidence of gender inequality in the labor market. The differences in jobs between women and men are one of the reasons claimed by the8M, gives of the working woman. According to data fromNational Institute of Statistics, masculinized jobs (plumbers, bricklayers, mechanics, etc.) have a 3.6% presence of women, while in feminized jobs, women account for 92.6% of workers.
In the jobs that are most associated with men, the presence of women is 3.6, which means that only124,932 womenthey work in this sector, in3,471,016 men. In the jobs associated with women, the number of men and women hardly differs: 1,814,290 men work in the sector considered as feminine, compared to 1,679,885 women. These INE data show that thepercentage of women in the world of work is much lowerthan that of men.
Less than 12%
- plumber, mason, mechanic, priest, drivers and taxi drivers and technical engineers.
Between 12% and 14%
- police, aeronautics, executives, gardeners, software analysts, garbage collectors.
Between 24% and 35%
- artisans, gasolineros, maintenance, artists, economists, architects.
Between 35% and 56%
- directors of the Public Administration, university professors, physicists, chemists, mathematicians, Thursday, lawyers and prosecutors, waiters, cooks.
Between 56% and 71%
- doctors, therapists, writers, journalists, pharmacists, tourist guides, kitchen assistants.
Between 71% and 85%
- shop sellers, primary teachers, public attention, cashiers and ticket clerks, hairdressers and aestheticians, nurses and midwives.
More than 85%
- cleaners, nurse aide, home caregivers, child caregivers, teachers, domestic workers.