It was a day for history. In 2018, millions of women set Spain as the epicenter of feminist protest with an unprecedented strike just for them. It has been 12 months, two governments and an election period waiting around the corner. Returns The 8th of March. Everything and nothing has changed. Follow the gender gap open, concrete ceilings in companies. They keep killing them. It is the most uncertain year, with a risk of involution by the irruption of the extreme right in different countries of the world, including Spain. A March in which the parties that in 2018 reneged on labels, are attributed the feminist and want to put names. Women's Day in Spain, year two of the strike. The feminist movement says that there are more than 1,000 reasons. A score of women explain theirs.
MARÍA LUISA BALAGUER
Magistrate of the Constitutional Court
"The problem in the courts is of quantity," says María Luisa Balaguer (Almería, 1953). She is one of only two magistrates of the Constitutional Court, with 12 members. Theirs is a clear field of glass ceiling. The components of the Constitutional propose them Senate, Congress, Judicial Power and Government. "There the parity is more difficult but, with political will, the composition would not be so scarce". Balaguer sees "many reasons" to celebrate 8-M. In the legal world judges are more than half in the first years of access, but barely reach the top.
Director of 'Hoy por Hoy'
He stopped so that his silence spoke for others. The journalist (Badajoz, 1964) again supports the feminist strike this year because this is what the women of the SER chain have decided. The media sector, dominated by women at the base, has few in its top. In the 30 largest communication companies in Spain there are 268 management positions: three out of four are occupied by men. He believes that the demands are still necessary for the youngest. "Those of my generation have taken an enormous leap with respect to the lives of our mothers and we have educated our daughters as free citizens. That they see that this is not the case, makes it essential on March 8 ".
ANA ROSA QUINTANA
Presenter in Telecinco
His break was a spur to the success of the feminist strike of 2018. The leader of the television mornings joined in the last moment. This second year he will not go to the demonstration. It will connect live at 13.00 with the reading of the manifesto of the communicators at the Reina Sofía. And promises a "very powerful" editorial. "For me 8-M is important because it reminds me that there have been brave women who have fought for us to have rights that we now enjoy, and we have to continue to support them for the new generations. There are many women who still can not manifest or rebel in our country. "
The function is suspended. Bárbara Lennie (Madrid, 1984) and Irene Escolar will not perform this function on March 8. Sisters in the theater of Santurce, they will do it on Sunday. "It's clear that there are still a lot of inequalities to raise your voice," says Lennie. According to the League of Professional Women of the Theater, only one in five premieres are of women, just like the scenographers. Only a third of those responsible for theaters are women and 23% are directors. "There are wonderful men, but there are no sensitivity to the feminine world."
Opera scene director
"Every day I open the newspaper or turn on the television, I understand the reason for a strike. I still do not understand why we are less for many ". It says one of the few directors of opera scene in Spain, where there are no regulated studies for that area. Sevillana, 33, is clear about the principle of 8-M: "We have not been valued and we have even been reviled". He affirms it knowingly: it has been difficult for him to break through.
Estefanía Cortés (Madrid, 1983), theater director, has seen a slight improvement in the gender balance in the tables in a five-year period. Among other issues, for the agreement signed in 2016 and for three years, the National Drama Center, the Almagro Festival and the Conde Duque Cultural Center in Madrid, which committed to include at least 40% in its programming of works carried out by women or endorsed by them; or the creation of the League of Professional Women of the Theater. Cortés feels that women are "one": "Powerful and fighter, with a thousand faces and a thousand bodies, but with a voice that defends every day the rights of all. No longer for anyone. "
As every 8-M, Marta Sanz (Madrid, 1967) and her friend Elvira will go together to the demonstration. This has been since they were 14 years old, as it counts in Monsters and Centaurs. "We are very happy to continue together but very sad to continue claiming issues that should be solved," explains the writer. It will also strike. "Feminism is not just a question of privileged university students. It has to do with the greater precariousness of women, more risk of exclusion and poverty. " She fell "del guindo" with a literary criticism of her work Los mejores tiempos, in which she had sought a male narrator. "He said that women are not equipped to reproduce the polyphonies of the world." Only five women have received Cervantes in 42 years.
She is 14 years old and today she will live her first 8-M. Dora Postigo, music in a saga of artists -is the daughter of Bimba Bosé-, arrives at the photo from class. He has just released his first album after triumphing in the networks with his home videos. "I do not want to surround myself with someone macho who believes he is better than anyone," he says. The Queen Sofia Center for Adolescence and Youth states that 56% of men aged 15 to 29 defend patriarchal attitudes. Postigo detects the toxic masculinity on the flight: "The boys of my age usually make the macho joke because they do not think before speaking, but nothing very crude".
"March 8 is the day in which women go out to the streets to demand profound changes in a social structure that continues to relegate us to a subordinate role, where the care work that falls on us is not considered a social value, and where we are not represented with justice in the organs of power, "he says. "Music is already seeing the fruit of the great mobilization last year. There are festivals that strive to make joint posters and there is a reflection in progress: if women are half of the public and half of the students in music schools, why are there so few playing on the stage? " . Rosenvinge (Madrid, 1964) laments the "very powerful reactionary current that aims to distort feminism and caricature it as a war of the sexes."
She is a columnist and mother of Manolito Gafotas. Elvira Lindo, on March 8, left an aftertaste "very inspiring". "The feminist discourse has entered the public debate", applauds. She likes facts more than words: "feminism is learned from life itself", she usually refers. And he also looks at his guild: "Writers think that because they talk about women they are all feminists". It asks for real measures and real behaviors. Without a gap, that conciliation is not a dream, that women do not die murdered.
Work on gender violence
Patricia Puerto, 37 years old, takes care of the women who are mistreated by the men who one day claimed to love them. 984 Spaniards have been murdered since 2003. And, with them, 27 minors since there are official data (2013). Nearly half a thousand files a complaint every day. He works in the Cometa service (that of control bracelets for abusers) since 2009, although now he is released by UGT. It will strike because of the "brutal" peak of inequality between men and women and also against those who doubt the victims and those who work for them. He is horrified that Vox has asked for the names of all the people who work in the victim assessment units of Andalusia. "They endanger all the jobs of those of us who are in this struggle. That effort can not be doubted. "
It is difficult to make an appointment with Rafaela Pimentel (Baní, Dominican Republic, 1960), one of the women who called the strike in 2018. It did not reach the photo. Soul of the Commission and a housekeeper, she works in a sector with a lot to improve. After the success of 2018, the commission asked that these workers enter the general regime. "They did nothing". "If they approve it, there would be rights such as collecting unemployment or quoting for what you really work for." She asks that her job, which women (98%) assume, be considered a job, with rest, vacations and permits.
MARÍA LUZ BLANCO
Mari Luz Blanco will not strike. "I'm not going to tell my husband to do it all," he says. Accountant, 62 years old, three daughters, is a kind of vital framework for Pepe Tarriza, sick of ELA. Women are the vast majority of those who care for dependents, children or adults. His work equals more than 28 million full-time equivalent jobs. She would mobilize if she could for the recognition of the work of the caregivers. The crisis stopped paying Social Security fees for caregivers, something that the Socialist Executive will now recover.
Ana Parra will celebrate this year half a century and has been 30 "defending the integration of women in all areas." He is a trade unionist (UGT) and has given the fight especially in his field. She is an auxiliary nurse and, although it is a sector with a large majority of women-according to the INE, in 2017 there were 46,979 members and 252,485 female members-she feels "concerned" and outraged by the lack of equity in many other sectors. "I will strike because patriarchy becomes too evident," he says. "The fourth wave is here. We can not let this moment pass, that of women. "
In the world where Victoria Molina moves from Abarán (Murcia), women are always in the background. He started as an agricultural laborer and in 2011 became autonomous. Grow nectarines with your husband. Salary discrimination marks out your life. To be passed from pawn to specialist had to go further than their peers. If one could grow 100 vines, 120. "In the rural world the poverty of women is perpetuated". Charging different for the same job is illegal but in Spain women earn 13% less than men for similar jobs, according to Fedea.
Retired truck driver
Juana Hervás (Madrid, 1960) is a retired bus driver. Remember a world full of men, yes, but also people who recognized the "value" of standing in front of a steering wheel: "Sometimes, when I stopped at a traffic light, there were people who looked at the truck and applauded or made a kind of reverence" . In the last census of drivers of the DGT, with data for 2017, there were 28,053 registered women with a C card, which corresponds to trucks. And 385,076 men. It is more than ready for manifestation.
MARCELA SAN MARTÍN
Programmer of the El Sol room
This Chilean has spent more than a quarter of a century leading the programming of the well-known El Sol, in Madrid. He arrived in Spain in 1978. Since then he has moved in a "very masculinized" environment. The key to combating that, for her, is unity: "United we are stronger". In 2016 she was one of the founders of MIM, the Women's Association of the Music Industry, to match figures in a world in which parity only reaches communication. Promotoras, producers, singers, musicians or techniques have squalid figures. Of the 20 largest festivals in Spain, only 15% of the soloists and bands included women in 2017.
This has been the year of the athletes. And there are a few. In Rio 2016, they won nine medals against eight men, consolidating the domain started in London 2012 (11 of them, 6 of them). And, in 2018 and 2019, Carolina Marin, Mireia Belmonte, Garbiñe Muguruza, Ona Carbonell, the women of the Spanish basketball team, the handball warriors or the footballers already occupy a space that was denied in the media. "Equality will exist when we do not have to celebrate 8-M," says Valdemoro, (Madrid, 1976), the best Spanish basketball player in history, who retired in 2013 after 22 years of career and a legend's record. "In respect it has been improved. But this struggle needs men, you need federations and managers helping. "
"I live 8-M as an unfortunately necessary event," he says. 50 years ago "it was evident that society was sexist. They would not let you open a book without your husband's permission. Today the legal and legal body says that you are the same. " He works in a very masculine field from the base. Only 14.7% of those who start Computer Engineering and 30.5% in Engineering, Industry and Construction degrees are women, according to Education. "We must work on the prejudices about science and about a girl's ability to dedicate herself to the hardest branches such as physics or mathematics".
Manager of the Complutense
Concepción Martín, manager of the Complutense de Madrid, is 56 years old and has worked 30 years in the public University, where women fill the faculties, most professors but only 21% of the professors and only 16% of the rectors of people in front. "More directors are needed," admits Martín, although he believes that the situation has improved in recent years (in 2015 there was only one woman in charge of a public university in Spain). Today will strike. "My reasons are almost those of all women. Continue defending the principles of equality. There is much to change, we need a more tolerant and egalitarian society. "
Esther Sánchez studied at the Polytechnic University of Madrid a career that men still cope with. In Spanish universities there are 101,000 men who study engineering and 33,000 women, according to Education. "In class a few macho comments I heard." Now he works in the Spanish Air Safety Agency, which depends on Development. For her the 8-M is a party: "I have not been my grandmother and I have had rights, luckily. She could not vote, for example. Although today work at home is not considered work ". She, this 8-M, in the demonstration.
María Renilla (Salamanca, 1983) was lucky to be born and grow up in an egalitarian environment and it seems "common sense" to support and fight for those who have suffered or suffer from machismo. She studied Computer Engineering and is a director of projects and research, with a broad curriculum in Design and User Experience: "Mobilization is important for women who have not felt valued to see that they are not alone." "I'm worth as much as any man," he snaps. Today will be mobilized "to get together new challenges."
In the morning he will go to the student demonstration, in the afternoon he will continue with his Erasmus. At 24 years old, he studies a higher degree of FP in Madrid as an information guide. "We have to change, the fear we feel when we go out on the street." 92% of Spanish women say they have suffered verbal or sexual aggression in their lives, according to the Jean Jaurès Foundation and the European Foundation for Progressive Studies. Castellanos laughs with a phrase from his grandmother: "You have to learn to sweep and do your things because you're a young lady".
MARÍA DEL MAR MARTÍNEZ
Senior partner of McKinsey
"I'm going to be working." She was the first senior partner of the consulting firm in which she has been 23 years. He considers that the 8-M is necessary because it mobilizes, "but the really important thing is to solve the problems at the root". He comes running to the photo after a meeting that can not be postponed. He will have breakfast with the compañeras of his office this Friday: "We will talk about the challenges of the professionals and we will be inspired by the ones that have arrived". A report from his consultant points out that directors in Spain are four times less likely to become CEO than men. And it appeals to the numbers: to reach levels of equality of other European countries would suppose 110,000 million additional euros, 8 percentage points in the GDP of 2025.