Since 1983, the law establishes that university professors are obligated to teach and investigate, but half of them fail to do so. 34% of the professors (3,600) and 60% of the professors (16,200) have not proven to produce quality science throughout their career, as show the data just published by the Ministry of Education that, in any case, reflect an improvement compared to five years ago. The research at the University is evaluated and rewarded with a salary supplement in the payroll. They are the so-called sexenios, that Professor Roberto Fernández de Caleya devised 30 years ago and that they imposed for the first time the self-evaluation of a group of officials and their effect on the salary.
The US and China lead the scientific productivity measured in patents and in publications in specialized journals. In the latter, Spain edited in 1990, 1.6% of the world's research and today it reaches 3.2%, occupying the eleventh position. In addition, it registers 1% of patents which places it in a sixteenth position. 19% of these patents in 2017 were university, compared to 12.4% a decade earlier.
TEACHING AND RESEARCH STAFF AT THE UNIVERSITY
The importance of university research is summarized by Juan Romo, rector of Carlos III, one of the youngest public campuses that can boast a high average of six-year terms (2.9 on average): "What differentiates a Good university is that its staff is in contact with the frontier of knowledge, teachers who not only transmit, but also generate and transfer that knowledge ".
In the study Do research and administration functions affect teaching? (2015), by Aurora García-Gallego, Professor of Economic Analysis, and several colleagues, it is concluded that the classes of those who do science are 20% better, because those teachers are more up to date in a world in constant change. But one notices, at the same time, that an excess of research ends up neglecting teaching. The study was addressed with anonymous opinions of 600 people from the Jaume I University of Castellón.
The teachers who investigate they apply voluntarily every six years your salary supplement. The National Commission for the Evaluation of the Research Activity (CNEAI) -comprised by prestigious university scientists and representatives of the autonomies and the Government- examines the submitted works to see if they meet the expected merits (articles, books or patents). If they pass the test their salary will increase with 140 euros per month. Throughout the race you can accumulate six six-year terms. Statistics show that older teachers accredit few. The 20% of the titular professors (5,400) do not have any because they do not investigate or they do it with mediocre results. "There are many people of the old guard who think that it is enough to teach," complains García-Gallego.
Among those who do not have six-year terms, there is also the possibility that they simply do not want to request them. But this is not usual if it has been previously investigated, because the six years are essential in some universities to teach doctoral classes, direct thesis or participate in the courts that evaluate them. And without sexenios today is not promoted in the race.
This apparent disinterest in increasing the salary based on research may have its origin in the Law for University Reform of 1983, which allowed raise wages to those who signed contracts with the industry. Some of the professors of Engineering have neglected their less lucrative research aspect in favor of private companies. And therefore have less sexenios.
García-Gallego praises the Anglo-Saxon countries, where the researcher meets every year with his boss and reviews the scientific contribution of this, the economic funds he has brought to his university to undertake research lines and the opinion that his students have of him .
Far from having such an organized system, in Spain universities lack, in general, mechanisms for accountability of professionals. There are, however, loose verses, such as Carlos III, which have more control and better statistics: "Research must be encouraged with salary supplements, fewer class hours, more laboratories or more assistants", defends the rector Juan Romo. This university evaluates the work of the faculty every two years and rewards it economically.
The professor Alonso Rodríguez Navarro, who participated in the beginning of the six years, says 30 years after the system does not work, because "science is not done to advance, but to publish in an impact magazine and tells you to achieve a six-year term " Although he believes that without the evaluation "the thing would be even worse". It gives an example to the United Kingdom, where the results of the departments are monitored and based on this they are financed, but it is very expensive.
In 2013 a report commissioned by the minister José Ignacio Wert already showed that "57% of university professors have a recognized sexennium or none, that is, a research activity null or almost nonexistent." The figures are gradually improving.
A report commissioned by the PP raised in 2013 that there were campuses without investigation, such as colleges from the United States that only teach degrees. "De facto already exists that figure and should be regulated, but being aware of the investigation. If they are good they could teach the classes in the first courses, that the agenda has not changed in years. Nobody doubts the quality of Oxford or Cambridge and there are that kind of teachers ", reasons Juan Margalef, of The Invisible Faculty, an association founded by the national end-of-career awards. The professor of the Polytechnic of Madrid Alonso Rodríguez Navarro qualifies that these officials would serve for teaching of degree, but not always in masters and never in doctorate.