30 Canaries for History - The Province
On the occasion of the International Women's Day that is celebrated today, La Opinion de Tenerife recounts the lives of 30 women who, in one way or another, have influenced the history of the Islands. Women who, in their day, had to fight against the established to discard in an environment where men were the protagonists. From guardians of Canarian culture and folklore such as Valentina La de Sabinosa or Dorotea de Armas, through the trajectory of the polifactica Mara Dolores Prats, actress who founded the first Canarian magazine written by women, until the struggle of Mercedes Machado to be able to exercise as the first lawyer of the Archipielago. All make up a small selection of a large list of Canarian women who have left their mark.
one. María Joaquina de Viera y Clavijo (poetess).
She was born in the 18th century and is considered the first poetess of the Canary Islands. Even the novelist Dulce María Loynaz says so in her work A summer in Tenerife. Her brother, José de Viera y Clavijo, greatly influenced her education and facilitated her access to a cultural environment that was not typical of the women of that time. She was a disciple of the image maker José Rodríguez de la Oliva and after Nicolás Eduardo. He looked after his parents until the end of his life with his brother José in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Religion occupied an important part in its life, as it is clear from many of its verses, dedicated to highlight religious facts, and to highlight the role of certain characters in favor of the Catholic faith. He cared about the events of his time and wrote verses To the victory won by the arms of the island of Tenerife against the English Squadron of Counter-Admiral Horacio Nelson, and also dedicated tenths to Manuel Godoy.
two. Francisca Spínola Bethencourt (painter)
He was born in Teguise (Lanzarote) in 1806. Although there is no record of the exact date on which he began his studies, it is believed that he made them in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, in the Drawing Academy. Later he traveled to Barcelona, where he exhibited the work he had done, and then to Madrid, where he continued his training. His biography and work have large gaps. Even so, the praises he received from the critics in his exhibitions in Barcelona have been collected. Francisca worked for years in the municipality of Haría, where she dedicated her work to beautification and maintenance of the church of Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación. His biggest jobs were The Sepulcher of the Lord or the Reclining Christ, this last one exposed today in the Sacred Museum of Haría. His work came to the archipelago and highlighted his work in the churches in the Villa de Teguise and Femés. In 1895, Francisca died in Teguise, the town where most of her life and work took place.
3. Dolores Millares Cubas (Pianist).
He was born in 1852 in Gran Canaria, in the bosom of a family with a great cultural restlessness. From an early age she expressed interest in literature, painting and music, and her parents urged her to fully exploit her talent. Already at age 10 he wrote small narrations and with 13 he sang and played the piano before well-nourished audiences. His first performance was in the Literature Cabinet of Gran Canaria in a concert organized by his father, Agustín Millares. When she was 21, she got married and moved to Barcelona to dedicate herself completely to domestic life. This caused him to move away from the cultural world and devoted himself to his children, but of the three that Dolores had only survived, the youngest. However, he continued to write, although less consistently, thanks to the correspondence he had with his family, as well as poems in which he spoke of the loneliness he felt for being away from his island. The most representative of this feeling is Echoes of another world.
Four. Ignacia de Lara Henríquez (writer and politics).
Her contribution to literature made her enter the temporal arch of modernist poetesses. In his work two stages can be distinguished: the first until the publication of his book For forgiveness and for forgetting; the second, since his definitive return to Las Palmas, in 1931, after having lived several years in Madrid and Barcelona. She studied at Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and graduated as a teacher in 1896. Her concern for the right to culture and freedom of women made her an icon of feminist vindication. She assumed the presidency of the Popular Action of Women association as a platform to achieve social improvements and greater culture and autonomy for women. Because of this, he experienced difficult moments of frustration and distrust as a policy. Finally, she oriented her social anxiety, especially to increase the culture of women, through conferences and journalistic writings.
5. Mercedes Pinto (writer and feminist activist).
She was a feminist writer and one of the most celebrated women in the history of the archipelago. In 1920 she moved to Madrid and began a stage in her life in which she went through bad times because of her husband, something that marked the rest of her work. Shortly after moving to the capital, she began to stand out in the press and within the feminist group led by Carmen de Burgos. In 1923, he offered a controversial speech at the Central University of Madrid called Divorce as a hygienic measure. After that, Primo de Rivera He banished her. She remained exiled in Uruguay until her death in 1976. There she produced several of her works, such as Brisas del Teide, The or the play Any man. Mercedes Pinto was one of the forerunners of feminism in Spain, a strong advocate of divorce and one of the women with the longest trajectory and repercussion in Tenerife, where there is a street with her name.
6 Valentina Hernández "La de Sabinosa" (singer).
She was a singer of Canarian folklore very esteemed in El Hierro and in her town for her work as a midwife. Originally from La Frontera, she was born in 1891 and died in 1976. Thanks to her work, the traditional music of Herreña became known throughout the archipelago and in Spain and she became one of the best drummers and singers. In addition, he tried that the essence of the songs from El Hierro, as well as its mysteries and tricks, remained intact as they spread. He was in charge of teaching the little ones all the secrets of traditional Herreño dances and played a fundamental role in the emblematic festival of the Bajada de la Virgen de las Nieves. Popularized songs like The dance of Vivo, The Tango del Herreño or The Arrorró Herreño, and the singer Víctor Manuel put voice to many of these subjects.
7 Mercedes Machado (a lawyer).
When she was still a girl, she left for France, where her mother married the one who drove her academic career to become one of the most illustrious people. She is considered one of the most important people in the history of the Canary Islands and also the pioneer of the legal profession in the Archipelago. When he left France, he returned to Tenerife, where he completed his teaching career. Soon after, he also graduated in Philosophy and Letters specializing in Classical Philology. To complete her studies with a third degree, she graduated in Law and became a lawyer. He also learned six languages and gave up to four subjects from different branches in the university. However, despite her considerable knowledge and ability, she was denied access to the Bar Association for being a woman. His great intellectual and pedagogical career earned him the medal of Alfonso X El Sabio.
8 Dorotea de Armas Curbelo (potter).
Daughter of the first locera of Lanzarote, she became famous for her toys and canarian clay idols. Some of his most famous works, such as Boyfriends of the Mojon or the Three-Legged Camels They made a name for him beyond the Archipelago. Even, it is considered as the most important precursor and the one that helped to promote the pottery in the Canary Islands throughout history. In 2017, with the twenty-ninth edition of the Insular Crafts Fair, the work of the Lanzarote was recognized in the main exhibition. The Cabildo of Lanzarote He has also considered it a prestigious figure thanks to his work to preserve one of the most deeply rooted trades in the Islands. It is considered, decades after her death, as a great potter and one of the most recognized and important women of the Canarian arts thanks to her work to preserve and spread the craft of pottery.
9 Chona Wood (poetess).
He was born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in the bosom of a wealthy family. She was a journalist and poetess from the Canary Islands honored with the poetry prize Tomás Morales for her work The few moments in 1967. Although she is famous for her literary production, she began writing while working as a journalist. In fact, he collaborated with newspapers in the Archipelago as The Eco of the Canary Islands Y The afternoon, besides working in magazines like Women on the Island, Message Y Gánigo. He started his work as a literata in 1940 and his first book of poems, The Dump Silence, was published four years later. His work was marked by a clear intimate tendency, with predominance of elegiac and amorous poetry. He moved to Málaga at the end of the 60s, where he lived until 1979 and where he published the works Continued Signal (1970) and My Other Word (1977). A short time later, he left the Andalusian city to return to his hometown, where he lived the last days of his life.
10 Isabel Macario Brito (singer).
She was an outstanding soprano born in Gran Canaria, where she has a street with her name. She started in music since she was a child, with the celebration of the concerts of the Immaculate Heart of Mary School, in the island capital. During that time he polished his talent and shortly after his great opportunity came in a concert of the Traditionalist Circle of Las Palmas, where he masterfully performed the Ritoma Vincitor de Aida. Her career took off when the international baritone Néstor de la Torre accepted her as a student. Thanks to this, she made the leap to Italy, where she was a student of maestro Gallignani. After a few months of preparation, he appeared in one of the mansions of the kings of Italy, in Milan, where he conquered the public. After triumphing abroad, he was asked in many acts. However, after a break in Gran Canaria, he gave up his career as a singer, although he continued to perform in the archipelago. His last performance was on November 4, 1947 in a concert commemorating the death of Felix Mendelsohn.
eleven. Dolores de la Torre Champsaur (musicologist).
She was the pioneer of musicology in the Canary Islands. From his father, Néstor de la Torre, an important Canarian baritone, inherited his passion for music. In addition to his artistic projection, he devoted himself to music education and especially in research. After the outbreak of the Civil War he left for Catalonia, and from there he emigrated to France and Havana. She was hired at the International Conservatory thanks to her prestige and her great work in all branches of music. Later, motivated by the serious illness of her husband, she returned to Gran Canaria, where she promoted the Musical Youth of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. She was elected member of the Spanish Society of Musicology, where she published important discoveries that made her known internationally and collaborated with the association Mujeres en la Isla where she offered concerts. She was awarded for her career and work with the Gold Medal of the Canary Islands and with the mention Hija Predilecta of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
12 María Rosa Alonso
She was a prominent teacher and philologist. His work was awarded multiple times with prizes such as Leoncio Rodríguez, Tenerife Gold Medal and Honorary Member of the Press Association of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Even, at regional and international level, with the Canary Islands Literature Prize and the Bronze Medal of the Order June 27 of the Ministry of Education of Venezuela. Her love and commitment to culture led her to promote the creation of the Instituto de Estudios Canarios in 1932, and since 1939 she was a member of the Canary Museum. Later, she graduated in Spanish Philology in Madrid, where she was a student of Ortega Gasset and Américo Castro. His research work was affected by political problems due to the republican affiliation of his family. As a result, the regime let her know that she would never be a professor at the University, which forced her to emigrate to Venezuela in 1953. In her honor, the institute formerly called IES Añaza changed its name to IES María Rosa Alonso.
13 Paquita Mesa (actress)
Pacota, as her friends called her, was a transgressive actress who helped to significantly boost the cultural activity of the Pérez Galdós theater in the 1930s. She was born in 1913 and died in 1999, just as she was preparing to be named Favorite Daughter from the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Thanks to a close collaboration with Néstor Martín Fernández de la Torre, she was able to fulfill the mission of bringing musicals, zarzuelas and shows, where she herself participated as an actress. In fact, it was thanks to her that the first musical shows in the Canary Islands were presented at that time. In 1936 he directed and presented for the last time The stranded mermaid, by Alejandro Casona, which was banned for a season by the Franco dictatorship. However, this did not make him abandon his job. In 1939 he presented The Tipitin, with the libretto by Luis Benítez Inglott, and The Umbria, of Alonso Quesada.
14. Evening Lorenzo (First Queen of Carnival).
Born in El Toscal (Santa Cruz de Tenerife), her family and loved ones have defined her as a lover of art, culture and as one ahead of her time. In 1935 he won the first Queen's gala with the costume Vamp which, inspired by a film, was designed by herself and her sister. She was only 16 years old and she was the youngest of that contest. The suit, daring for its time, was white, was designed with spirals and was completed with a violin and a hat. In total, it cost just 6,000 pesetas. Despite his originality and daring, he could not continue with his artistic career as much as he wanted because of the outbreak of the Civil War. The Miss had several tributes throughout the years and her figure has always been present in each new Carnival.
fifteen. María Dolores de la Fe
She was a writer and natural journalist of Gran Canaria who collaborated throughout her life in different media. Some of his works are Happenings for Jacob (1972), Las Palmas almost yesterday (1978), Spiral island (1982) or Sepia time (1988). Likewise, she was named Favorite Daughter of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, something that, in the words of the writer, further strengthened her ties with Mayor Jerónimo Saavedra. However, he refused to enter the Canarian Academy of the Language because he thought he would not be up to the intellectually. At the same time, he maintained in one of his books that Christopher Columbus was a woman, something he talked about nationally in the television program Directísimo. His last book was published in 2005 and is named Medium / dialogues (2005). In it he has conversations with some classic characters who visited her in her dreams.
16 María Teresa Prats de
Laplace (theatre actress).
He moved to Gran Canaria, where he developed all his literary activity. He specialized in theater and essays, and his bibliography is one of the most valuable in the Islands. He also played an important role in the press and collaborated periodically with The vanguard Y The Diary of Las Palmas. However, one of his greatest contributions was the creation of the magazine Women on the Island. This initiative began as a supplement to the Diary of Las Palmas in 1953 and already in 1955 it began to be published independently, until 1964. This was a great advance for the female role in investigative journalism in the Canary Islands. Women in this sector had a voice to publish artistic critiques, cultural chronicles and different scientific and sociological studies. As for his literary work, the most famous play he created was Process to the 20th century. He wrote it in 1962 and premiered at the Teatro Pérez Galdós in 1973.
17 Dolores Massieu (painter)
Better known as Lola Massieu, the painter and artist of Gran Canaria was awarded the Canary Fine Arts and Interpretation Award. He was born in a family that loves culture and received training in classicism, artistic painting movement, from his uncle and grandfather, both called Nicolás Massieu. When he learned, he ran away from some classes to make his own paintings. During the 50s, he received inspiration from the artistic vanguards and abstract movements, so his work evolved and reached new heights. He even entered the world of music and came to learn singing by the hand of Lola de la Torre. His oil paintings were exhibited at the Museo Canario for the first time in 1958, but he also had space in Rayuela (Madrid) and the Museum of Contemporary Art (Barcelona). Because of its originality, it is considered an authentic pioneer and rebel in the panorama. It is said that when he said he wanted to be an artist, with 11 years old, he took a cake in the face.
18 Carmen Laforet (philosopher)
Daughter of a Barcelona father and a Toledo mother, she was born in Barcelona on September 6, 1921. However, she spent her childhood and adolescence on the island of Gran Canaria, where her family moved when she was barely two years old. In 1939 he returned to the peninsula, specifically to Barcelona, where he studied Philosophy. In 1942 he moved to Madrid to study law. However, he never finished those studies. In 1945 he published his first novel, entitled Nothing. With it he won the first edition of the Nadal Prize, from the Destino publishing house. In 1965 he traveled to the United States, where he wrote an essay about his experience in that country. During that trip he met Ramón J. Sender, with whom he established an epistolary relationship that is condensed into a work entitled You can count on me, with a total of 76 cards. Laforet had a pessimistic perception of the Spanish literary panorama, which he perceived as a nest of rivalries and jealousies, for which he did not finish fitting in that community, and considered himself "enemy of all".
19 María Mérida (singer).
Considered one of the four best voices in the world in the 1950s by the New York Times and also like the Edith Piaf Canary by Le Figaro. Her talent soon became recognized, as she was awarded just 12 years in a pageant contest held in 1937. A few years later, during her stay in the Tenerife capital, she took classes in regional dances and her voice was considered as favorite in the Coral Mass. Later, at the age of 21, he traveled to Madrid, where for seven years he sang for Spanish emigrants in Latin America on a National Radio program in Spain and where he coincided with artists such as Lola Flores. At the same time, he studied singing with Lola Rodríguez de Aragón, professor at the Conservatory of Madrid, but finally decided to leave the career of lyric singer to devote his life to the songbook of his homeland.
twenty. Nivaria Tejera (writer)
Poetisa and novelist, was born in Cienfuegos, Cuba, on September 30, 1930. Her family, formed by a Cuban mother and a father from Tenerife, decided to move to the city of San Cristóbal de La Laguna before she was two years old. Once settled in Tenerife, they were surprised by the outbreak of the Civil War and it was his father, a progressive man, who suffered the worst part of being imprisoned until 1944. After the liberation, Nivaria returned to Cuba, where he began to write publish poems in some of the most prestigious magazines of the forties and fifties as Cyclone Y Origins. His first book of poems, called Lights and Stones, was published in 1949. The cliff, his most famous novel, was published ten years later. In Santa Cruz de Tenerife, even, there is a street with his name.
twenty-one. Pilar Lojendio (poetess).
The writer, born in Tenerife, was recognized with the Julio Tovar Poetry Prize for her work A Stone licks. He used to say that he was born when his father "went into the bay to get home in the middle of the Republic." She was an author who stayed away from the literary trends of the 50s and 60s, so it is considered a link between two generations, the postwar (Generation of the Middle Century) and the Poetry Canary Last (1966) . From an early age he showed his passion for literature writing stories in his school years and, in full adolescence, wrote his first poems. Later, in 1956, he married the merchant sailor Laureano Mariz, with whom he formed a large family of five children. This fact definitively marked his literary work, because The husband has arrived, his first book published in 1969, reflects the loneliness and the desire to share life with a man who spends more time at sea than on land.
22 Josefina de la Torre
She was an artist from Gran Canaria linked to several branches of the arts: she was an actress, writer and singer and her work was framed within the avant-garde trend of the first half of the 20th century. It was the passion for the arts of her relatives that probably induced Josefina to start flirting with them from a young age. At age 8 he started writing verses, and at 13 he published in magazines. When she returned to Madrid, she made her debut as an actress at the Teatro Nacional María Guerrero in 1940. From that moment on, her work was more inclined towards interpretation. In 1946 he founded his own theater company, The Comedy Company Josefina de la Torre. Despite her brief foray into film, it was the theater that completely wrapped her up and covered her with fame. At the end of the eighties his collected poetic work was published, with the title of Poems of the Island. In 2002, the same year in which he died, he was awarded with the Cross of the Canary Islands Order.
2. 3. Clemency Hardisson
He was born in La Laguna, in the heart of a Franco-Belgian family opposed to the Nazi movement. This marked his life and his work. With eight years he participated in a literary festival of fundraising in the Guimerá Theater of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. On the other hand, she participated in beauty contests and was awarded as Queen of the Beauty of the Province in 1929. However, her social status did not prevent her from getting involved in political causes during the Second Republic. In 1931 he established a sentimental relationship with an anarchist, and became involved with some labor unions. In addition, it spread anarchist ideals, for which it was investigated by the Francoist authorities. The dictatorship marked her as "dangerous woman". She was arrested shortly after the coup d'état and imprisoned between 1937 and 1939. After leaving prison she traveled to Belgium and France, where she also lived the Nazi invasion. Between 1939 and 1945 he collaborated with the French resistance and was decorated for it. During the sixties he returned to Tenerife, where he donated part of the family land for charitable causes.
24 Pino Ojeda Quevedo
She started writing poetry after the tragic death of her husband in 1939, which occurred on the battle front in Extremadura during the Spanish Civil War. This fact originated an intimate literature that talks about issues such as loneliness, lack of love, the inexorable passage of time, death and hope. His literary career began in 1940, in the Tenerife magazine Message, where he made known some of his poems, In 1952 Ojeda also founded, from Gran Canaria, the magazine Alisio Poetry sheets, whose circulation lasted until 1955 and in which several outstanding authors of the time published, such as Juan Ramón Jiménez and Vicente Aleixandre, among others. In 1956 he received the Tomás Morales Prize with The stone on the hill, a poem divided into twelve rooms published in 1964. In addition, Ojeda was not limited only to the literary side: in the field of painting, the author managed to exhibit his work in countries such as the United States, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany? Due to her introduction of certain techniques, she is considered one of the forerunners of abstract art in the Canary Islands.
25 Natalia Sosa Ayala
She was born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria on March 27, 1938. Daughter of the writer Juan Sosa Suárez grew up in an environment of love of culture and letters and of social and intellectual commitment. He soon began to publish his first compositions in the local press and, with only 17 years old, he published his first novel: Stefanía. In 1956 he began to collaborate actively with magazines Guiniguada Y Women on the Island with poems, stories, literary criticism and opinion articles. Five years later he moved to live in England and it was on his return, in 1963, when his second work was published, Letters, an atypical novel. His literary production goes hand in hand with an intense work as a collaborator in the opinion sections of the newspaper The province, where he made clear his commitment to social reality. Sosa died in the same city that saw her born in the year 2000.
26 Marisa Tejedor Salguero (biologist)
Although born in Burgos, Marisa Tejedor has developed her entire career in Tenerife. She holds a PhD in Biological Sciences University of La Laguna (ULL) and professor in Edaphology (science that studies the nature of the soil) and Agricultural Chemistry. Between 1990 and 1995 she became the third rector of a Spanish university and the first of the ULL. A merit that, for the moment, no other woman has repeated. He also collaborated in the Higher Committee for Scientific Research (CSIC). In addition to his scientific career, it is linked to politics. Last year she became the patron saint of the Santa Cruz Sostenible Foundation and since 2005 she is the Minister of Industry, Trade and New Technologies of the Government of the Canary Islands. Among its main achievements, it highlights its role in achieving the declaration of Anaga as a World Biosphere Reserve in 2015 by Unesco. In addition, due to the role she played as rector in the University, she has a street with her name in the municipality of La Laguna. During his time in office, he expanded the current Guajara Campus.
27 Carolina Martínez Pulido (biologist)
He was born on November 28, 1950 and graduated in Biology for the University of La Laguna (ULL) in 1976, and a decade later he received his doctorate. Since 1990 she worked as a professor of Plant Biology at the School of Pharmacy of the ULL and combined teaching with her research as a biologist. She was invited in 1988 and 1990 to the University of Calgary, in Canada, where she carried out her projects for the regeneration of Canarian pine. He gained recognition from the scientific community and published several articles and a book about his research. In addition to her scientific work, her work has sought to highlight the role of women in the biological sciences. In 2003 he published a book entitled The Role of Women in Human Evolution. On the other hand, she was part of the University Institute for Women of the ULL and is a member of the Association of Women Researchers and Technologists (AMIT). In 2000 she received the Research Award of the Canary Institute for Women, and in 2017 the Carmen de Burgos Prize for Feminist Dissemination.
28 Elsa López Rodríguez
He was born in Equatorial Guinea in 1943, but in 1944 he moved to the Island of La Palma until 1955. Later he settled in Madrid, where he graduated in Philosophy from the Complutense University of Madrid. Afterwards, she spent a year in Switzerland as a student and teacher of Spanish Literature. In 1972, when he returned to La Palma, he worked as a teacher while working on his thesis. In 1973 he presented the thesis to the Complutense University of Madrid Superstitions on the island of La Palma and in 1980 he presented his doctoral thesis before the Autonomous University of Madrid, based on his anthropological and philosophical studies. Obtained the title of Doctor Cum Laude Thanks to this and two years later was appointed professor of philosophy by the institute Isabel La Católica in Madrid. In addition, he elaborated a wide poetic bibliography, among which titles such as The wind and the oleanders (1973), The Dark fajana (1990) or Mar de Amores (2002). He has received literary awards nationwide and currently resides in La Palma involved in cultural and social activities inside and outside the archipelago.
29 María Dolores Palliser
She was the first female deputy of the Parliament of the Canary Islands, as well as a member of the regional government. He was born on the island of Gran Canaria, but his political and business career was mainly developed in Tenerife. When he was seven years old, he entered a Tenerife school and, years later, studied law at the University of La Laguna. His love for the laws is a family tradition, since his mother was the first graduate lawyer of this same university after the Spanish Civil War. In his university years, he joined the Popular Socialist Party and little by little he was venturing into the politics of the Islands. After finishing her university studies, she worked in the Cabildo de Tenerife and later became a counselor tourism and Transportation. Six months later, she was a candidate for Tenerife of the PSOE in the regional elections and repeated her position in the second term of the party. This lawyer was also an entrepreneur in the world of finance, but was not very successful and in 1997 she resumed her profession as a Civil Law specialist.
30 Teresa Giráldez Fernández (chemistry).
He was born in Madrid in 1978 and received his doctorate in Biochemistry in 2001 at the University of Oviedo. In 2014 she was hired by the University of La Laguna (ULL) as a researcher. Teresa Giráldez realizó estancias postdoctorales en distintos centros de Estados Unidos, como la Universidad de Yale. En 2006 se incorporó al Departamento de Farmacología de la ULL como investigadora, y en 2008 fue nombrada Investigadora Principal en el Hospital Universitario de Nuestra Señora de Candelaria. Durante su carrera se ha formado en biofísica, fisiología y neurociencia. Hasta la fecha ha publicado más de 30 artículos, ha participado en decenas de congresos y ha dirigido cinco tesis doctorales. También ha sido premiada en varias ocasiones; en 2009 fue galardonada con la Bolsa de Investigación For Women In Science y el Margaret Oakley Dayhoff Award. Fue la primera mujer no estadounidense que recibió esta condecoración. En 2013 fue reconocida como Mujer Canaria del Año por el Orfeón de la paz, y en 2015 recibió el Premio 8 de Marzo del Instituto Universitario de Estudios de la Mujer.